Questions tagged [conjugation]

For questions about conjugating Latin verbs.

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1answer
73 views

What are the verb conjugation names called in Latin?

What are the terms in Latin for the Latin verb conjugations? I would like to also know the Latin for the mixed conjugation (or if preferred that known as the io sub conjugation) and any term for verbs ...
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0answers
48 views

Does the PPA occur in a periphrastic form? [duplicate]

Can you put a PPA in a periphrastic construction, with a form of esse? I was working on the periphrastic declension of the future active parts and the future passive parts. Now it occurred to me: ...
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3answers
235 views

Is it possible to have an imperative feel without using the imperative form of a verb?

In English, we can have a sentence that doesn't include a verb but is taken as a directive. Consider the following phrase from the HBO television show, Carnivale: Every prophet in his house. In the ...
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3answers
797 views

Parsing "quae cum audisset"

I'm having trouble parsing the phrase "quae cum audisset," which I've seen translated as "when [subject] heard" or "and when [subject] heard" in the latin vulgate. For ...
3
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1answer
109 views

Is there an alternative way to label verb conjugations?

Similar to my question about labeling declensions by something other than just numbers, is there a way to describe the four groups of regular conjugations using something other than just numbers? The ...
6
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1answer
238 views

Is quod too ambiguous for "that which"?

I'm trying to write a variation of Ovid's phrase "Omnia mutantur, nihil interit" — "Everything changes, nothing perishes". So far I've came up with "quod mutat, non pereat&...
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2answers
159 views

Fourth conjugation imperfect -e

in the fourth conjugation imperfect after the stem and before the imperfect indicator there is -e. e .g. audi + e + ba +t. Where this -e comes from?
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1answer
48 views

What is the difference between passive and past participle?

Is there a semantic difference between a past participle followed by esse and a passive verb? Example. Roma destructa est. / Roma destruitur.
3
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1answer
117 views

Conjugating confluo for app title

I have a software product called Continua. I want to make another with a title like Confluo. What are some reasonable variants of that word for this purpose — confluere, etc.? I'm feeling like it ...
11
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1answer
473 views

Numbering of persons

It is conventional to number the three persons of Latin and Greek and many other languages so that the first person is the speaker, the second one is the listener, and the third one is anyone else. ...
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2answers
75 views

When conjugating a verb, when should the vowel preceding a personal ending contain a macron? [duplicate]

I am working through ch 1 of Wheelock's Latin, and I am confused as to when the vowel immediately preceding a personal ending should receive a macron. For example, here is the present indicative ...
4
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1answer
137 views

Should I learn the four conjugations?

So I did well in my Latin GCSE this year but we just learned that -o is first person, -s is second person, etc. But I had a closer look at the textbook today and it lists verbs in four conjugations ...
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61 views

Contraction of the v-perfect in the first person singular

When there is talk about the v-perfect contraction, I don't ever see first person forms used as examples, only forms like "amavisti" becoming "amasti". So my question is whether first person singular ...
5
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1answer
1k views

May they rest in peace

This may become an inscription written on a historical marker commemorating a mass grave. Which of the following is correct: Requiesce in Pace or Requiescant in Pace? The former was offered up by a ...
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2answers
399 views

What evidence points to a long ō in the first syllable of nōscō's present-tense form?

I've read in various sources that the verb nosco 'know' had a long vowel in the first syllable in Classical Latin pronunciation: nōscō [noːskoː]. I'm wondering what the linguistic evidence is for the ...
2
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1answer
148 views

What evidence is there for volēre over volere?

In this answer, fdb mentions the Classical verb volō, velle transforming into *voleō, volēre in Vulgar Latin. The main evidence for this is a form volendi in Augustine and reflexes like voglio, volere ...
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2answers
171 views

Second vs. third person in future imperative for a general rule or maxim

I am trying to translate "plan [in order] to achieve" into Latin. Is it more appropriate to use second ("meditator ut consequaris") or third person ("meditator ut consequatur") in future imperative ...
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74 views

Alternative forms in second-person singular present active subjunctive [duplicate]

I am trying to translate "plan [in order] to achieve" into Latin. From the dictionary it looks like both "meditator ut consequaris" and "meditator ut consequare" are grammatically correct. Are they, ...
5
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1answer
160 views

Is it better to memorize verb's 1st person perfect tense?

Is it necessary to memorize verb's perfect form like paro, parare, paravi? Or can I predict a verb's perfect forms if I remember the rules by which perfect stems are formed. Like, the suffix -v/iv or ...
3
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0answers
73 views

What do I do when "ait" fails me?

In a separate answer, I was trying to use ait in an English sentence: If the Lex Julia can ait its wording… …but I ran into a problem. Even ignoring my bastard mixture of English and Latin, "can ...
3
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2answers
94 views

Is ulcantur a subjunctive of ultus?

I have a prayer I say every morning. It includes the word ulcantur. I can't find a translation. I think it is a subjunctive for ultus? O Piisima Virgo Maria, quæ caput serpentis contrivisti, protege ...
4
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1answer
309 views

Why "amatus est" instead of "*amavitur"

Is there any diachronic reason whereby synthetic perfective passive forms like *amavitur (and similar ones) are not possible and analytic forms like amatus est (and similar ones) are selected instead? ...
3
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1answer
58 views

Are there Latin verbs with Greek cognates in all four conjugations?

Off the top of my head, I can think of a few Latin verbs with obvious Greek cognates: pherō~ferō "to bear", pheugō~fugiō "to flee". But all the words I can think of are in the third conjugation. Are ...
8
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1answer
121 views

Is the U long or short in the forms ussi and ustus of the verb ūro?

I'm uncertain about the length of the u in the perfect and perfect passive participle stems of the verb uro /uːroː/. My research Lewis (1890) gives "ūrō ūssī, ūstus" but doesn't explain why....
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2answers
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How to find the stem of any word?

I am wondering if the stem of every word has an exact form? For example: For the word genus, how could you determine is it gen or gener? For the word līber, how could you determine is it līber or ...
3
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1answer
136 views

Did the Romans create any irregular verbs?

Most newly-formed Latin verbs were put into the nice, regular first conjugation: both deriving from existing words (dīcō, -ere > dīctō, -āre) and with borrowings (Graecissō, -āre). English is mostly ...
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3answers
142 views

How to do indefinite person with verbs

In English you can conjugate like so: I eat You eat He/she/it eats We eat You all eat They eat But you can also conjugate with a variety of “indefinite” pronouns: One eats Everyone ...
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1answer
95 views

Conjugation/grammar for fictitious title

In a work of fiction, I have an Order of ordained detectives that do not exist. I use the term Lictor Rebus Sanctorae for the Order, and Lictor Rebus Sanctorus for the male protagonist. I know this ...
3
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1answer
70 views

Translating sentence but how do I deal with conjugation - if it's plural in English, is it plural in Latin?

I want to translate "Fear is a crossroads" but I'm confused because in English, "crossroads" is plural, but uses the singular article "a". So would my sentence be "Timor est compitum" or "Timor sunt ...
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2answers
364 views

'plecto, plectere, plexi', -tor/-sor form (agent noun)

How would one add the agent noun suffix (normally -tor) to the verb 'plecto' (I weave/twist)? It's been a few years — about 10 — but if I recall correctly, verbs whose stem ends in 't' ...
4
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2answers
328 views

Aperio - to reveal?

I’m trying to conjugate aperio to say, “I reveal/uncover/disclose”. So, I guess I have two questions. First, is aperio the correct verb to say this? And, if so, what is the correct conjugation?
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1answer
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Audio and video... and tango?

Audio and video are two (apparently XX-century) concepts. Both take the same form as 1st-person sing., present tense Latin verbs. Wiktionary articles for the English words (audio, video) assert that ...
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1answer
134 views

Future: why -am instead of -em?

The future tense of third and fourth conjugation verbs is marked by -ē-, as in trahes and audies. The regular personal endings are added after this vowel. But in the first person singular the ...
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0answers
98 views

Cur coniugationes systematis praesentis sunt tam dissimiles cum eae cum coniugationibus systematis perfecti comparentur?

TL;DR & the actual question For those who don't need an explanation of all verb endings and the ways in which they differ from each other, my question follows below. For those who might need a ...
12
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1answer
254 views

Third conjugation passive infinitive: why -i and not -eri?

The active infinitive is uniform (-re from -se by rhotacism) across the regular Latin conjugations, but the passive one is not: the third conjugation loses the consonant. We have amare/amari, habere/...
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1answer
194 views

What is the origin of the active perfect indicative personal endings?

The active perfect stem conjugation in Latin resembles the conjugation of esse a lot, but I recently learned that it is likely to be a coincidence. However, the active perfect indicative forms do not ...
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1answer
105 views

Does 'fiebam' contain the same root twice?

I learned from this question and its answers that the imperfect marker -ba- comes from the same PIE root as fui and fio. What about the form fiebam (and other persons) then? Does it contain the same ...
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2answers
884 views

What is the origin of the future suffix -b-?

I read in this answer that there may be a relation between the future endings -bo, -bis, etc. on the one hand and the verb fio "become" on the other. Is this true? If so, do we have any more details ...
6
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1answer
232 views

Is the sigmatic future related to the sigmatic aorist?

When I was learning Ancient Greek, I was taught that most verbs had three basic stems corresponding to the different aspects: imperfective -λυ-, aoristic -λυσ-, and perfective -λελυκ-. Adding an ...
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1answer
98 views

Are there iota or hypsilon contract verbs?

In Greek, verbs are classified as "consonant-stem" or "vowel-stem". Vowel-stem verbs, aptly, have a vowel at the end of their stem. And in the Attic dialect, if this vowel is a short alpha, epsilon, ...
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1answer
71 views

How can I find words matching a particular pattern?

When I asked about verbs in -o-, Rafael and Joonas both brought up a wonderfully useful tool: using Perseus to find all words matching the pattern *oo. But what if I don't want to find the dictionary ...
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1answer
302 views

How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
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1answer
458 views

Where does the infinitive 'fieri' come from?

What is the origin of the infinitive fieri? It is unusual in many respects. The stem seems to be fi- and the infinitive ending -eri is only found in the second conjugation. However, the second ...
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1answer
121 views

Are there verbs in -o-?

Verbs conjugated in -a- (amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus), in -e- (habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus), and in -i- (audio, audīre, audīvī, auditus) are common and well-known. Verbs in -u- (acuō, acuere, acuī, ...
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1answer
130 views

Why is there a short ŭ in rŭtus?

In Cerberus's list of u-stem verbs, rŭō, rŭere, rŭī, rŭtus is the only one with a short ŭ in the participle stem. Why is this? Does it go back to different types of verbs in PIE, as with stătus ...
5
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1answer
248 views

Do other verbs use different stems for their perfect passive and future active participles?

In his answer to another question, Cerberus remarked that many verbs with perfect participles in -ūtus had future active participles in -uitūrus. This struck me as odd, as I had been taught that those ...
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2answers
205 views

Are there other verbs in -uō?

Someone asked me recently about the conjugation of the obscene verb futuō, futuere, futuī, futūtus—and in particular about the quantity of the ū in the participle. I intended to look at some other -...
8
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1answer
426 views

Active perfect stem conjugation and forms of esse

Many forms formed from the perfect stem (habitav-, fec-, tetig-, and others) resemble forms of esse. It looks as if a form of esse was directly attached to the perfect stem. In perfect conjunctive an -...
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2answers
410 views

Vowel length in future perfect indicative and perfect conjunctive

I want to compare future perfect active indicative and perfect active conjunctive. They look identical, apart from first person singular (cogitavero ≠ cogitaverim). But is there a difference in the ...
3
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2answers
121 views

Understanding 'percepset' instead of 'percepisset'

When looking at the L&S entry for percipio, I came across a surprising perfect form: percepset. The contraction percepisset > percepset lookst similar to cogitavisset > cogitasset. Are ...