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Questions tagged [coniunctivus]

For questions about the mood known as conjunctive or subjunctive.

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2answers
60 views

Why was the subjunctive mood 'so called because the Greek subjunctive mood is used almost exclusively in subordinate clauses'?

Concerning the adjective "subjunctive", OED (3rd ed., 2012) mentions (emphasis mine): Post-classical Latin subiunctivus is a translation equivalent of Hellenistic Greek ὑποτακτικός , which as a ...
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1answer
88 views

What is the difference between conjunctive present and perfect with ne?

I have seen both present and perfect forms of the conjunctive for negative orders or requests, for example ne canas and ne cecineris. What is the difference? Is one more an order and the other more a ...
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1answer
644 views

Use of “sit” instead of “est” in Virgil

I came across the quotation "Nunc scio quid sit amor" (Virgil, Ecl. VIII.43), and I’d like to know why the subjunctive "sit" is used instead of "est" here. Since it means "Now I know what love is" and ...
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3answers
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Can a subjunctive verb ever be modified by οὐ? (Greek)

I'm working on an exercise where I translate this Greek sentence to English. οὐ θαυμάσῃ εἰ θεός τις φανεῖται ἀπὸ τῆς μηχανῆς; My translation: Won't you be amazed if some god will appear from ...
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2answers
134 views

Subjunctive mood in comparison

In Spinoza's Ethics we see: nihil in natura clarius quam quod unumquodque ens sub aliquo attributo debeat concipi I know meaning of the sentence. My question is about debeat. Why is this verb ...
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5answers
3k views

Why is there no future perfect subjunctive in Latin?

Why is there no future perfect subjunctive verb form in classical Latin? I can't think of a time it would be used, but I can think of an English translation: "if subject were to have verbed, then ...
2
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4answers
82 views

Ethics of Spinoza - Translation of “sit” and “satis”

Spinoza's ethics, On the God, Proposition 8, Scholium 2: ut satis attendenti sit manifestum 4 translations of this sentence: White: as is evident to any one who pays a little attention ...
7
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1answer
136 views

weird pluperfect subjunctive in Eutropius

In Rōma Æterna, p. 239, in a passage from Eutropius, book 28, comes the paragraph: P. Scīpiō in Hispāniā cum Poenīs dēbellāvit quārtō decimō annō eius bellī; et ā Tarracōne in Āfricam ad Syphācem, ...
2
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1answer
110 views

Deploying “Ut”/ “Quod”/ “Quin” plus Subjunctive

The use of ut + subjunctive in final/ purpose clauses is well-known/ well-established. But "quod" & "quin" seem to be deployed in near-identical circumstances e.g. in Ex 197 (North & Hillard): ...
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2answers
87 views

Sequence of Tenses: Translating the subjunctive

This is probably a pretty basic question, but I am new to Latin and am having trouble understanding the subjunctive. The sentence "Pūgnāverō ut nautam superem" is translated to "I shall have fought ...
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1answer
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Reflexive Pronouns & Indirect Statements

The answer key to North & Hillard, Ex. 235 proposes the following Latin translation of:"...until the king, frightened by the ambassador's boldness, promised to do what the Senate decreed." ......
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1answer
217 views

Using subjunctive in relative clause linked to indirect command

I'm enquiring about the translation of this sentence: I ordered the soldier, who was walking in the garden, to collect flowers. Using 'imperare' as the verb to order, my question is whether '...
5
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1answer
125 views

Accusative in genitive relative clause with verb finiebat

I am working on Satyricon, currently chapter 30, and have stumbled upon a passage with a grammar that baffles me: Et quod praecipuē mīrātus sum, in postibus triclīniī fascēs erant cum secūribus ...
5
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1answer
74 views

Expressing English modalities of advice in Latin

English has expresses advice in the present and past through the use of the following modal constructions: present: You should [...] present negated: You shouldn't [...] past: You should have [...] ...
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2answers
503 views

How to say “Don't even…”?

The following constructions feel simple enough: "You don't even move." — Ne moveris quidem. "Don't move!" — Noli moveri! or "Ne motus sis." But what if I want to give a negative ...
7
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1answer
408 views

how to tell when to use cum temporal and when cum circumstantial

So I have never, ever, ever been able to grasp fully any explanation in any textbook of the difference between cum temporal and cum circumstantial, because the examples they give always seem to ...
4
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0answers
40 views

Wondering how to translate imperfect subjunctives (in a conditional sentence)

I have to translate this sentence for homework: si verba patris a liberis non audita essent, timerent. I believe the verb form in both the protasis and apodosis is imperfect subjunctive. I am ...
7
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1answer
65 views

Use of subjunctinve in a North & Hillard translation exercise

North & Hillard Ex. 228 includes: Next day Caesar had again an army which, though diminished, was prepared to face all dangers manfully. A footnote states: "Of the concessive conjunctions ...
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1answer
104 views

Which adverbs of possibility and probability warrant the subjunctive?

On my previous question (thus begins the chain) I wrote a comment saying "Illa est bona idea. Fortasse rogem cras." I used the subjunctive because I take "fortasse" to mean "maybe", which to me ...
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2answers
61 views

Help finding the use of the subjunctive

In the sentence, "centurio nos rogavit ut captivos custodiremus," what is the use of the subjunctive. It's not a cum clause, indirect question, or result clause. That leaves purpose and indirect ...
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1answer
112 views

Why doesn't Caesar use the subjunctive consistently?

In the Commentaries, Caesar writes: Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea ...
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1answer
971 views

When to use cum + subjunctive and when cum + indicative

So I have never, ever, ever been able to grasp fully any explanation in any textbook of when to use "cum" with the subjunctive and when to use it with the indicative, because the examples they give ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Oratio obliqua and case agreement between accusative subject and subject in subordinate subjunctive

Given an accusative subject of oratio obliqua, if that subject is or words declined with it it are repeated in a subordinate subjunctive, are they accusative or nominative in the subjunctive? Exemplī ...
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2answers
172 views

subjunctive after “Hoc est, quod”

I'm reading Ficīnus's Latin translation of Plato's Apology and came across the following passage, two things in which baffle me. (They're unrelated, so I'm making them two separate questions.) ...
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1answer
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Passive Subjunctive Translated as Active

Moreland has this line: Cognoscebamus quo tempore dux mortem illis patriam neglegentibus minatus esset This is an indirect question, hence the sequence of tenses: main verb takes Imperfect; ...
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2answers
246 views

The difference between coniunctivus and imperativus when expressing commands

What is the rule for choosing coniunctivus or imperativus when expressing commands? I know, that imperativus has only second person forms, so one is forced to use coniunctivus for other persons. Are ...
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0answers
50 views

Imperative vs Hortatory Subjunctive [duplicate]

According to this, Subjunctive can be used to express "an exhortation or a command". When should Hortatory Subjunctive be used and when Imperative is favoured? What is the difference in meaning?
5
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1answer
160 views

The use of subjunctive in the future

I came across the usage of subjunctive the other day. I read that if the main verb is in the present, future or perfect with have, the subjunctive is in the present whereas if the main verb is in the ...
7
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1answer
96 views

Verb forms after “tamquam si”

In Suetonius's Vita Horati, a letter from Augustus to Horace is quoted, which includes the sentence: Sume tibi aliquid iuris apud me, tamquam si convictor mihi fueris. The Loeb translation gives: "...
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1answer
2k views

“..so that others may live”, future subjunctive?

Salvete, omnes: I studied Latin in college, but it has been a few years since I was immersed in it. I'm trying to wrangle a translation for the motto of an American Air Force search & rescue unit:...
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3answers
346 views

What is the difference between present and perfect conjunctive in hesitation?

I recently said this in our chat room: Ita crediderim, sed certus non sum. A brief discussion ensued about my choice of tense. I wanted to express hesitation, and my gut feeling says that the ...
10
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2answers
129 views

Choosing conjunctive tenses in a clause subordinate to a subordinate clause

I will phrase my question through an example. Consider this sentence in English: I do not know whether you wrote where you are. This has one governing clause ("I do not know") and two indirect ...
7
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1answer
60 views

What mood should the verb of a relative clause within a purpose clause be?

Suppose we were to translate the English sentence into Attic Greek or Latin. Do not fight your brother, lest you, who are smaller than him, be hurt. You can see how the relative clause, "who are ...
13
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1answer
342 views

What is the optative?

Some conjunctive forms end in -im (and -is, -it, -imus, -itis, -int), but this is rare. The examples I recall are sim, possim, velim, nolim, malim, and duim (alternative to dem). These forms are ...
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2answers
186 views

Consecutio temporum et praesens historicum

Sometimes in an intensive narrative the present tense is used to refer to past events. Such use of the present tense is called praesens historicum. It is formally present but semantically past. How ...
11
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1answer
385 views

Memento quod <subjunctive>

(A tangent off of a question and comment by David Charles.) This verse from roughly the ninth century: Memento rerum conditor, Nostri quod olim corporis Sacrata ab alvo Virginis Nascendo ...
5
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1answer
112 views

Does using quippe in a relative clause require conjunctive?

One can insert the particle quippe in a relative clause to give it a causal or otherwise explaining tone.1 Does quippe require using conjunctive in the relative clause? If not, are there some rules ...
11
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1answer
228 views

What's the difference between coniunctivus and subiunctivus?

I was thrown off by a recent question that talked about the "conjunctive" mood, which I had never heard of. A few searches of William Whitaker's Words reveals that both coniunctivus (or conjunctivus) ...