Questions tagged [classical-latin]

Questions concerning Latin of the classical era, approximately 75 BCE to 300 CE

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Explanatory and Etymological dictionary of the Latin Language

With the term explanatory I am translating ερμηνευτικό. A dictionary which defines words comprehensively and clearly. If one considers Oxford University to be the authority on the English language ...
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Essentialia negotii transaction's essentials

So essentialia negotii is transaction's essentials. How would one say The transaction's essential things, transactions' essential things, essential things of the transaction and essential things of ...
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406 views

Is the adjective in latin put after the noun or before?

E.g Is the legal term essentialia negotii correct use of the grammar(declension, agreement, word order) rules or not? Should it not be negotiorum essentialium so that the case, the number and the ...
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Is the locative used with multi-part city names?

The Duolingo Latin course mentions New York a lot. (I'd rather have it focused on the geography of ancient Italy than the modern US, but that's beside the point now.) The locative comes up regularly: ...
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What is a “robot” in Latin?

I read in Wikipedia the word robotum and robotor. Also, there is automaton, and androides. I don't see such a word in the [short online version of the] Lexicon Recentis Latinatis by the Vatican (which ...
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What is “heart” as the emotional organ?

In English one uses the word "heart" in a variety of ways to express deep emotion, as in "She will always be in our hearts". Is there a corresponding "emotional organ" in Latin? How should I go about ...
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Do Latin novellas exist to help develop vocabulary for reading Vergil's Aeneid?

I'm taking a 4th semester Latin class in which we are jumping right into Vergil's Aeneid, said to be quite difficult. We were discussing the relatively recent phenomenon of 'novellas' being written in ...
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How is September 3, 2019 written in classical Latin? [duplicate]

This is a portrait of Myself done, as best I could, in a classical approach.
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Any material on so-called “inverse analysis” and “minimal pairs” to practice Latin grammar?

I was wondering if anyone could provide me with references on any online material (pdf, links, etc.) of Latin Grammar which can contain exercises based on so-called "inverse analysis" and "minimal ...
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When did “virgo” gain its sexual meaning?

The primary meaning I associate with virgo, virginis is "young woman", perhaps a bit older than a puella but not yet a mulier. However, the descendants of this word (in English and the Romance ...
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Did the Romans ever use 'decimatio' in a generalized sense?

Decimātiō was a Roman term for a military punishment where a group was reduced by a tenth. But in modern English, decimation is used generically to mean 'greatly reduced or damaged', often in ...
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47 views

Which word best translates spark as in a spark of energy?

Any latin, my tags aren't a mistake. The more variations the better thanks
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Latin expression for “carrying something on one's back”

In Spanish, the word cuesta is nowadays used as slope. Nonetheless, the etymology of the word indicates that it comes fom Latin costa, ae meaning "a side" but also "a rib". In fact, an old meaning for ...
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How was “gnosco” pronounced?

I've heard it said before that Classical Latin /gn/ between vowels (as in magnus) was probably realized as [ŋn] (as in "hangnail"). This is supported by Romance descendants and the spelling of certain ...
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113 views

Is it better to memorize verb's 1st person perfect tense?

Is it necessary to memorize verb's perfect form like paro, parare, paravi? Or can I predict a verb's perfect forms if I remember the rules by which perfect stems are formed. Like, the suffix -v/iv or ...
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53 views

What is “password” in classical Latin?

The concept of passwords predates computers: To gain access to, say, some heavily guarded premises, one may need to be able to say a secret phrase to the guards. I would imagine this concept was not ...
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Historicity doubted by Romans

The Roman historians seem happy to mix history with myth with no discussion on the reliability of one's sources — or even a mention of the sources in the first place. I would like to imagine ...
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Can “ave, vire” be used colloquially as “hey, bro”?

There's a Spanish webcomic called ¡Eh, tío!, an expression that can be translated into English as hey, man or maybe as hey, bro. The webcomic had some time ago a story arc set in an alternate universe ...
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How would Marcus Aurelius have pronounced his Latin?

It is my understanding that Julius Caesar, Cicero, Octavian (Augustus) would have pronounced Latin in a manner that is decidedly Classical, characterised by: "v" as /w/ "c" and "g" always hard (i.e., ...
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When did the classical period of Latin end?

When did the classical period of Latin end? I found that it is different in various books. Wikipedia: 75 BC–AD 3rd century Oxford Latin Dictionary: ? BC–AD 200 Lewis and Short: unknown Allen and ...
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107 views

How did the Romans call the days of the week?

As a prequel to this other question, as suggested by Joonas Ilmavirta I would like to know how did the Romans call the days of the week (if they had names at all) in the different systems they had. ...
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52 views

Did the Romans abbreviate the days of the week?

In current Spanish when we have to abbreviate the days of the week using only one character, in most places (but not everywhere) to tell apart martes (Tuesday) from miércoles (Wednesday) we use 'M' ...
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59 views

“ferro se petentem”

Valete, I have this sentence (written by Ulpianus in Digest 9.2.5) : Sed et si quemcumque alium ferro se petentem quis occiderit But if someone (quis) killed anyone else (quemcumque alium) when ...
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Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum – Lucretius

I saw this quote in someone's forum sig file (signature): "Tantum religio potuit suadere malorum." - Lucretius Curious, I consulted Google Translate, which my professional translator brother cautions ...
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Branches of Roman military in Latin

The military force of a country is often divided in branches such as an army, a navy, and an air force. There are many other branches out there, but the point is that I am looking for a division of ...
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Understanding a sacrifice in Horace's carmen 1.5

In Carmina 1, poem 5, Horace writes about an untrustworthy and seducing lady. He ends the poem in: (...) Me tabula sacer votiva paries indicat uvida suspendisse potenti vestimenta maris deo. ...
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I need help translating two sentences into Latin [closed]

Phrase 1 : Life is in the doing. Phrase 2 : The wood belongs to the families who have their roots in it.
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Are there specific exceptions to the rule of lengthening a vowel before “ns” or “nf”?

A while ago, I wrote an answer summarizing my understanding of the rule that a vowel is long in Classical Latin before ns or nf. As far as I know, this rule applied very regularly. But I'm not sure ...
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Grammatical analysis of comparative parts (i.e. “tam … quam”, etc.)

I have the following sentence from Seneca, epistula 1, §2: "Cum placuerit fieri, toto illum pectore admitte; tam audaciter cum illo loquere quam tecum." However, I'm not sure what the "tam audaciter ...
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looking for a pair of texts in a Greek/Latin comedy

I'm looking for any pair of texts (Ancient Greek, Latin), meeting the following criteria: Both texts may be very brief. The Latin text should be a translation very close to the Greek text. The Greek ...
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71 views

Keep on dreaming

My niece is turning 18 and I want to get her a bracelet with something in Latin engraved. Im looking for something in the lines of "keep on dreaming". Can anyone help?
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337 views

Longest Text in Latin

What are the longest texts, say top 5, transmitted via manuscript from the Classical/Early Medieval period?
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233 views

“Fīliolō me auctum scito, salva Terentia”; what is “me” role in this phrase?

Is "Fīliolō me" the ablative of the phrase or "me" refers to "me auctum" in the accusative? If is in the ablative, how does it translates?
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Latin original for “Would you have a great empire?” saying, by Publilius Syrus

Can someone provide the original Latin translation for Publilius Syrus's famous axiom, "Would you have a great empire? Rule over yourself." I have searched online and not been able to find it in Latin....
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“ne paelici suspectaretur” (Tacitus)

Tacitus, Annales 4.3: pellit domo Seianus uxorem Apicatam, ex qua tres liberos genuerat, ne paelici suspectaretur. The translation on Perseus (Church and Brodribb) gives: Sejanus, to avert his ...
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229 views

Can 'non' with gerundive mean both lack of obligation and negative obligation?

If a gerundive is used with non, can it mean both lack of obligation and negative obligation? For example, can non loquendum est mean both "it is not necessary to speak" and "it is necessary not to ...
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Are there Roman accounts of Easter?

Now that it is Easter time, I wonder whether the Romans wrote about Easter. I am looking for non-Christian accounts in Latin describing the events of Jesus's death and subsequent resurrection. I ...
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Switches Between Direct & Indirect Speech in Suetonius-Supplemental

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: concerns the assassination of Emperor Caius (Caligula) on January 21st., AD 41. At this point, the assassins have struck the first blows and Caius, still alive, ...
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Present Participles: can “respicienti” be part of an ablative absolute in this sentence?

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: ...alii Sabinum summota per conscios centuriones turba signum more militiae petisse et Caio "lovem" dante Chaeream exclamasse: "accipe ratum" respicientique maxillam ...
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Switches between Direct & Indirect Speech in Suetonius

Suetonius, Caius (Caligula) 58: alii [tradunt] Sabinum summota per conscios centuriones turba signum more militiae petisse et Gaio 'Iouem' dante Chaeream exclamasse: 'accipe ratum!' ...
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How things change in Latin

After having provided an answer to Draconis’ question ( Did Latin have any ergative verbs? ), I was wondering about the (very subtle?) meaning differences involved in triads like {aperit/se aperit/...
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How often were names ending in -um used in real life?

There seem to be a number of examples of personal names ending in -um in the works of Plautus (apparently, they also show up in Terence1). In a discussion on Wiktionary, I found an interesting comment ...
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Quality of final ĕ ĭ ŏ

Evidence from the Romance languages provides fairly good evidence for distinct qualities, [ɛ] vs. [eː], for ĕ and ē in stressed syllables when followed by a consonant. Likewise for ŏ and ō as [ɔ] vs. [...
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How do we know how -iī and -iit perfects were stressed?

The question Are there exceptions to the Latin stress rules? has an answer by Joel Derfner saying that the first-person singular perfect forms dormiī, audiī, veniī (for dormīvī, audīvī, venīvī) have ...
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Understanding “audieritis” in Psalm 94

Consider the following excerpt from Psalm 94 in the Vulgate. Hódie, si vocem eius audiéritis, nolíte obduráre corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatióne secúndum diem tentatiónis in desérto: ubi ...
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Self-teaching: Good resource for learning subjunctive

I am self-teaching Latin and have no instructors to whom I can ask questions. I am at a loss for learning subjunctive (mostly its uses and translating into English) and would like a resource that ...
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Expressing outrage

I'm looking for a way to express in Latin "she broke a blood-vessel in a fit of passion". It's an English idiom, not to be taken literally, but used to express a burst of outrage or anger. I need ...
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How to do indefinite person with verbs

In English you can conjugate like so: I eat You eat He/she/it eats We eat You all eat They eat But you can also conjugate with a variety of “indefinite” pronouns: One eats Everyone ...
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876 views

Meaning of “SEVERA INDEOVI VAS” from 3rd Century slab

Can someone explain the meaning of the words "SEVERA INDEOVI VAS" on this slab: According to https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depiction_of_Jesus, the above image is of an "Incised sarcophagus slab with ...
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859 views

Etymology of ambulance

For a while I have been curious about the etymology of the English word 'ambulance' since it seems to be derived from the Latin word 'ambulare' (to walk). This seems a strange origin for the word. ...