Questions tagged [ancient-greek]

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2
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0answers
38 views

Arnold and Conway, earlier change of pronunciation of aspirates?

Describing the pronunciation of Greek in schools in the UK, Allen says that a pamphlet by Arnold and Conway, "The Restored Pronunciation of Greek and Latin," pretty much set the standard ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Formation of ἔλδωρ, a wish

Beekes says that ἔλδωρ/ἐέλδωρ comes from ἐϝέλδομαι, without commenting on the suffix. Is this a case where the agent-noun suffix -τωρ (a.k.a. -τήρ) was applied, but then ἔλδτωρ got automatically ...
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2answers
215 views

Suffixes -τρον, -θρον, and -εθρον

Dickinson College's digitization of the grammar text by Goodell seems to suggest that -τρον and -θρον are synonyms. We also have πτολίεθρον, where it looks to me like the suffix is -εθρον (unless this ...
4
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1answer
82 views

A matching opposite of the word "axiom"

A rough search told me that the word axiom traces back to axíōma (ἀξίωμα), which roughly means "that which commends itself as evident". I am looking for a word which expresses the dual ...
5
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1answer
284 views

Are ἄρσην, ἄρσις and θήλυ, θέσις etymologically related?

In Mt. 19:14, "άρσεν και θήλυ" means "male and female". In music terminology ἄρσις means a stressed/emphasized sound, and θέσις the corresponding unstressed one. Is ἄρσις ...
3
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1answer
66 views

Subjunctive αἰδέσεται rather than αἰδέσηται?

Homer several times uses the subjunctive αἰδέσεται. I would have expected this to be αἰδέσηται, and wiktionary agrees with me. I guess the lack of an augmented initial vowel is a hint that this is a ...
4
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1answer
227 views

What is the general ablaut rule that explains examples like φρήν, πρόφρων, πρόφρονα?

Φρήν (midriff, will) gives rise to the adjective πρόφρων (eager, literally motivated by will). It looks to me like the -ων comes from ablaut applied to -ην. (It doesn't look like a suffix -ων, since ν ...
2
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1answer
67 views

What's going on with ablaut in forms like ἔβην, βῆναι, φανῆναι?

Verb forms like ἔβην, βῆν, βῆναι, and φανῆναι seem to have some ablaut going on. My understanding of the phonological rules of ablaut in ancient Greek is from Pharr, 4th ed., p. 277, along with the ...
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4answers
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Is there an English word derived from τάσσω, with a similar meaning of arranging/organising?

Apologies if this is the wrong site to ask this on. I am looking for an English word that is derived from Ancient Greek τάσσω, meaning I arrange, I draw up, or I order. I would like a word that evokes ...
4
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1answer
243 views

Feminine forms of adjectives in -ων: why ἀέκουσα, but not ἀπείρουσα, ἀμύμουσα?

The wiktionary entry for -ων says it's an ending cognate with stuff like Latin -ens, -iens, and gives the feminine as -ουσα. Therefore it makes sense that we get ἀέκων, ἀέκουσα. But then we have ...
6
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4answers
192 views

What is the evidence for *ḱw > *kʷː in Greek?

It seems to be commonly accepted that Proto-Indo-European *ḱw became something very close to *kʷ in Greek, hence ἵππος (Mycenaean i-qo = *hiqqos?) showing the same develarization as ἕπομαι. The ...
5
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1answer
443 views

Why is ἀτρύγετος = ἀ + τρυγάω + τος "formally not easy?"

Homer uses ἀτρύγετος as an epithet of the sea and sky. The etymology has traditionally been taken to be α participle formed from ἀ + τρυγάω, unharvested or barren, but Beekes says this is "...
3
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1answer
70 views

Why κιχείη rather than κιχάνοι?

Book 1 of the Iliad has the optative form κιχείη. Wikipedia says that ordinarily we expect to see the -η- infix in singular optative forms when the verb is athematic or a contract verb. Neither seems ...
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1answer
87 views

Meaning of προσκυνέω in Koine Greek

Does anyone know if this word was ever used to describe an act towards something that wasn't a god? If so, what did the act entail? Could this word be used to describe devotion to an object--for ...
3
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56 views

Is there a 'catalogue' of Euclid's use of Greek prepositions in his Elements?

A question on SE-Biblical Hermeneutics quoted Bullinger's Companion Bible referring to Euclid in order to define the meaning of εις in a metaphoric context. Euclid uses eis when a line is drawn to ...
2
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1answer
77 views

Why does the contraction rule ε+εν -> ειν apply to the formation of λύειν?

In their discussions of the formation of the infinitive, both Pharr and White remark on the contraction of -εεν to -ειν, but I don't understand why this would apply to most of the examples that come ...
2
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1answer
58 views

Resource request: formation of the Greek infinitive, including Homeric Greek

As suggested by cmw, I'm spinning off this resource request from an earlier question that was long and unwieldy. Can anyone suggest resources that do a good job of giving a complete presentation of ...
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68 views

Is the Greek infinitive regular?

My general understanding of Greek verbs is that if you know the six principal parts, you should be able to infer all forms of the verb (although there may be complications such as contractions, the ...
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25 views

"Paper shuffler" equivalent in modern or ancient Greek

Not really a Paper Shuffler but I am looking for a word that describes a person who knows all the unnecessary details in a business or activity but doesn't really understand the whole idea or the real ...
2
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1answer
116 views

How were τὰ φυσικά, φυσικός, and φύσις pronounced in Aristotle's time?

This question occurred to me in the context of a previous question of mine, which concerned the etymology of 'physics'. τὰ φυσικά is 'the collective title of Aristotle's physical treatises' (OED). ...
2
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1answer
50 views

Why τράφεν rather than ἐτράφησαν?

For the verb τρέφω, to nurture, Pharr lists the principal parts for the Homeric dialect as τρέφω, θρέψω, ἔθρεψα/ἔτραφον, τέτροφα, τέθραμμαι, ἐτράφην. (Wiktionary also lists ἐθρέφθην as a possible ...
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In the etymology of 'physics', what is the ultimate Greek root?

The Oxford English Dictionary says the following about the etymology of physics: < PHYSIC adj. (see -ic suffix 2), after classical Latin physica natural science, in post-classical Latin also the ...
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1answer
263 views

Difference between μένω and μίμνω?

Homer uses both μένω and μίμνω, the latter of which looks to me like a reduplicated form. Wiktionary gives definitions that seem almost identical, and says that μένω supplies all of the tenses of ...
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1answer
99 views

Latin translation of "The Great Canon", hymn by St. Andrew of Crete?

The Great Canon, as it is normally known in the Orthodox Church and beyond, is a very lengthy hymn (formally, a canon) by St. Andrew of Crete, dating from the 7th century, and used until today during ...
3
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1answer
160 views

Omicron sometimes becoming omega in conjugation of ἀπόλλυμι

Homer has, for example: Τυδέα δ’ οὐ μέμνημαι, ἐπεί μ’ ἔτι τυτθὸν ἐόντα κάλλιφ’, ὅτ’ ἐν Θήβῃσιν ἀπώλετο λαὸς Ἀχαιῶν. (Iliad 6.222) But Tydeus I remember not, for he left me whilst I was yet young, ...
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0answers
61 views

Were aspirations pronounced longer in dialects influenced by semitic languages?

In general, /h/ and similar sounds are quite frequent in semitic languages, in Hebrew it even forms the definite article. So, speakers of semitic origin would seem to me more likely to pronounce the ...
4
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1answer
98 views

Homeric word for a tent?

The word I've seen for "tent" in koine is σκηνή, but this word doesn't seem to occur in Homer. The Greeks' shelters on the shore of Troy are κλισίαι, which Cunliffe translates as "hut ...
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1answer
67 views

Homeric expression for "easy?"

All of the following seem to be expressions in ancient Greek meaning "easy," as in "tic tac toe is an easy game:" εὐπετής εὔπορος ῥᾳδιος εὐμαρής εὔκοπος However, none of these ...
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1answer
69 views

What feminine noun is implied in ἐφέροντο τὴν πρώτην "were the leaders" (Philostratus)?

Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists 1.18: ἡ Ἀθήνησι δημαγωγία διειστήκει πᾶσα, καὶ οἱ μὲν βασιλεῖ ἐπιτήδειοι ἦσαν, οἱ δὲ Μακεδόσιν, ἐφέροντο δὲ ἄρα τὴν πρώτην τῶν μὲν βασιλεῖ χαριζομένων ὁ Παιανιεὺς ...
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1answer
283 views

Why are there circumflex accents in these words? -- κορῶναι, αἶγες, αἶγας

This question is about the Homeric dialect. crow/gull = ἡ κορώνη, κορώνης, 1st decl., feminine goat = αἴξ, αἰγός, 3rd decl., masculine or feminine In the nominative plural, the copy of Homer I have ...
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65 views

Rentiers in Ancient Greece

I've been looking for a Greek equivalent of 'Rentiers' who exploit the economy by lobbying the state e.g. asking the state to give them subsidies for a certain common good (climate change) but ...
4
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1answer
62 views

Which is correct? Eugenius or Eugenīus or both?

Checking the dictionary entries for Eugenius, I was surprised to find different vowel quantities depending on whether it was the adjective or the noun. As you can see from the screenshot above, ...
2
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1answer
89 views

What is the correct order for a calendar date, specifically ancient Greek Attic calendar?

In ancient Greek dating format, does the month or day come first in order? In other words, if ancient Greeks were discussing a specific date using the Attic lunisolar calendar, how would they order ...
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2answers
397 views

What would "agenda" be in Ancient Greek?

How should agenda be translated into Greek? The first thing that comes to my mind is just taking the future passive participle, neuter plural, of ἄγω (ᾰ̓χθησόμενα); however, there is a slight ...
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65 views

Is the Italian town Empoli from Greek ἐμπολή, "merchandise?"

Is the italian town-name "Empoli" related to the greek word "ἐμπολή", meaning merchandise, or gain from merchandise? I met "εμπολή" in the form of "ἐξεμπολημένων&...
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1answer
406 views

Did Plato describe man as "a being in search of meaning"?

I happened upon this Quora question, in which the quote "man, a being in search of meaning" is ascribed to Plato. Did Plato write this and if so, where? Obviously there are other Platonic ...
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1answer
221 views

Is μῆνις cognate with mania?

Pharr (Homeric Greek: a book for beginners, 4th ed.) has on pp. 10 and 281 a statement that μῆνις in Homer would have had an α in most dialects and says that it's cognate with maniac and maniacal. But ...
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1answer
62 views

How to express singing a song rather than singing about something

If I'm understanding correctly, άείδω is used with the accusative, and it means to sing about something. In English the object of the verb would be the song, not the thing being sung about. In Greek ...
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4answers
320 views

What monolingual text editions are available?

I am a beginner and making quite good progress with Ovid. Rete utile est. To start with Ovid I bought the Loeb edition of Metamorphoses, Books 1 to 8. But I anticipate that when I have finished this ...
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1answer
159 views

βυκάνη < būcina: vowel reduction undone in borrowings from Latin?

So I've come across this word βῡκάνη, ostensibly borrowed from Latin būcina ('an ox-horn trumpet'), from bou- ('ox') + canere ('to sing'). The lack of vowel reduction is immediately striking; ...
4
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1answer
72 views

Star age of exploration translation

A while ago I asked about a translation for "star age" to ancient Greek. I ended up with the wording: Astereaon. I am now curious as to what the translation would be for something like: &...
7
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1answer
356 views

Is Greek ἀρά, prayer, cognate with Latin ara, altar?

Is Greek ἀρά, prayer, cognate with Latin ara, altar? Wiktionary had ἀράομαι, with the etymology pointing to a red-linked ἀρά. I created an entry for ἀρά based on LSJ, but I have no source of ...
7
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1answer
210 views

Tellus' "briny robes"

I read in Keats' Hyperion: [...] No, by Tellus and her briny robes! (Hyperion, 246) Tellus is a Latin goddess, her Greek counterpart being Gaia. I am looking for the Greek or Latin source of the ...
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1answer
410 views

Is there any rule for determining whether a verb beginning with ε- will augment to η- vs ει-, or must all verbs' behaviors be memorized?

For instance, the verb ἐλευθερῶ augments to ἠλευθέρουν in the past, whereas the verb ἔχω augments to εἶχον (not ἦχον as might have been predicted).
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1answer
170 views

Homeric hapax legomenon ἐγγεινομαι -- is it not real?

There is a 2018 thesis by Alexandra Kozak, "Le Dictionnaire des hapax dans la poésie grecque archaïque, d'Homère à Eschyle," freely downloadable from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-...
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1answer
457 views

What is the ancient Greek word for apprenticeship?

I'm looking for an ancient Greek word that denotes a trainee craftsman's regime of study under a master, I found the word μαθητεία but I'm unsure if that is a word in ancient Greek or only in modern ...
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1answer
52 views

Etymology of εὔκοπος

This seems to be a koine word meaning easy. LSJ has it and the verb κοπάζω, but the English wiktionary didn't have either. I added both to wiktionary. It seems obvious that the etymology of κοπάζω is ...
5
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2answers
933 views

Evidence about pronunciation of ευ and αυ in Homeric Greek?

In modern Greek, a word like ευχαριστώ is pronounced like "ef-." The combinations ευ and αυ sometimes have the upsilon pronounced like β and sometimes like φ. (I'm not sure how variable it ...
6
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2answers
804 views

Why -ώς in αἰδώς?

The word αἰδώς means awe, shame, or respect. There are related words such as αἰδοῖος. I feel like I ought to be training my brain to recognize inflections in order to get clues as to meaning, but as ...
5
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1answer
95 views

Subjunctive Protasis and Aorist Indicative Apodosis

ἐὰν μή τις μένῃ ἐν ἐμοί, ἐβλήθη ἔξω ὡς τὸ κλῆμα ... (John 15:6) μένῃ is present subjunctive and ἐβλήθη is aorist indicative. In many grammar books, there are two types of conditional sentence which ...

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