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5 votes
1 answer
337 views

Can someone explain this unexpected construction?

I'm reading Ανάβασις by Ξενοφών. I came across this sentence: ἐν δὲ τούτῳ ἧκε Τισσαφέρνης ἔχων τὴν ἑαυτοῦ δύναμιν ὡς εἰς οἶκον ἀπιὼν καὶ Ὀρόντας τὴν ἑαυτοῦ δύναμιν: ἦγε δὲ καὶ τὴν θυγατέρα τὴν ...
5 votes
1 answer
364 views

Why is πλοῦτος sometimes neuter?

I was reading some of the letters of St. Paul recently and noticed that πλοῦτος is sometimes neuter, e.g. Ephesians 1:7: . . . ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν ...
2 votes
3 answers
162 views

Why does Ancient Greek "metá" mean both between and after?

The Ancient Greek word μετά means two very different things. Are there any other examples in world languages of a word for "between, with" being colexified with one for "after, next to&...
7 votes
2 answers
313 views

Ancient Greek: first declension stem

I’ve been looking for a long time, but I still don’t understand how to get the stem of an Ancient Greek noun that belongs to the first declension. Almost every book says that for example -ᾱ, -η, -ᾰ (...
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

How is ϡ pronounced in modern times? [closed]

The Greek letter sampi is not used in modern times, but I saw a sentence saying that it is still used in modern times to represent law numbers or book chapters. When I look up the pronunciation, all I ...
1 vote
1 answer
133 views

Was Greek ever written in this way at any time in antiquity?

Are there any extant ancient Greek inscriptions that exhibit all of the following features: scriptio continua (i.e., majuscules letters only, no spaces between words, no diacritics, no punctuation ...
13 votes
3 answers
2k views

Is "anti" used in Latin?

Apparently, anti is a word already available in Greek, meaning against. However, it seems this word did not reach Latin. Still, Wikipedia entries of common English words that have anti as prefix are ...
2 votes
0 answers
44 views

Patristic philology - editions of byzantine texts

We are aware of the editions of classical texts (ancient Greek and Latin) by Oxford, Teubner, Bude, Loeb. Where should I search for byzantine texts and especially works of Greek Orthodox Holy Fathers (...
5 votes
1 answer
675 views

English pronunciation of Ancient Greek names

Are there any rules for converting Ancient Greek names into an English (borrowed) pronunciation? I'm imagining an algorithm of Ancient Greek letters → English IPA that would work in 90% or 80% of ...
3 votes
1 answer
347 views

Is there any potential ambiguity in this phrase from Xenophon?

I'm (still) reading Ανάβασις by Ξενοφών. I came across this sentence: οἱ μὲν οὖν πρῶτοι ὅμως τρόπῳ τινὶ ἐστρατοπεδεύσαντο, οἱ δὲ ὕστεροι σκοταῖοι προσιόντες ὡς ἐτύγχανον ἕκαστοι ηὐλίζοντο, καὶ ...
9 votes
1 answer
630 views

One Syllabus Many Syllabontes?

Trask's Historical Linguistics (3rd Edition) makes an off-hand comment that "the Greek word syllabus has a Greek plural syllabontes". As we know syllabus is actually a spurious word, arising ...
2 votes
1 answer
79 views

What is this grammar and how should I interpret this?

εἰσὶν δὲ οὗτοι οἱ οὐδὲν ἄλλο οἰόμενοι εἶναι ἢ οὗ ἂν δύνωνται ἀπρὶξ τοῖν χεροῖν λαβέσθαι, πράξεις δὲ καὶ γενέσεις καὶ πᾶν τὸ ἀόρατον οὐκ ἀποδεχόμενοι ὡς ἐν οὐσίας μέρει. I don't understand the bold ...
5 votes
1 answer
2k views

What are the differences between the words "QUASI", "HYPER", and "PSEUDO"?

As an opening our question, briefly consider the following three examples of mathematical terminology: Quasi-Sphere Hyper-Sphere Pseudo-Sphere What are the differences between the words "QUASI&...
2 votes
2 answers
145 views

Is μάλα (mala, adv.) derived or cognate with some adjective?

In Attic Greek, μάλα is an adverb meaning "very, very much, exceedingly." Is it derived from some adjective, or is there an adjective that is its cognate? Is μακρός (makros) the adjective? ...
3 votes
1 answer
169 views

Origin of the neologism "radiodrome"

In the Wikipedia entry of the term "radiodrome" for a pursuit curve, there arose a question about its original intended meaning: ῥᾴδιος+δρόμος, or radius+δρόμος. I have been unable to find ...
1 vote
1 answer
142 views

How do I say " One more" in Ancient Greek?

How would I say "one more" (as in, "one more beer") in Ancient Greek. My friends and I have an inside joke of always saying "one more" whenever someone wants to leave a ...
1 vote
1 answer
127 views

Have these Greek letters been related to these Latin/English letters?

Was each following Latin/English letter originated from, cognate with, or related to the Greek letter given after the Latin/English letter? Latin f and Greek phi Latin h or e, and Greek eta Latin j ...
8 votes
2 answers
325 views

What is the difference between ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός?

What is the difference between the two adjectives ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός? In particular, what word would fit the best to mean "history" between ἀρχαιολογία and παλαιολογία?
7 votes
2 answers
324 views

Why aren't there more letters representing consonant digraphs in Greek?

In classical Greek, the only consonant digraphs that have corresponding letters in the alphabet are ks(Ξ), ps(Ψ), and zd(Ζ, though this one's debated) -- why aren't other consonant digraphs (e.g. ts, ...
0 votes
2 answers
94 views

How shall I remember the order between the letters in Greek alphabet?

In Greek alphabet, letters are ordered from alpha to omega. Why is it the order? How was it originated? Does the order matter? I saw that the order is used in Greek numerals for naming numbers. What ...
2 votes
0 answers
77 views

Differences between φρονεω and νοεω

What is the difference between the meaning of these two words? How is it different when I φρονεω vs when I νοεω? So far as I understand it, νοεω is from the νους or καρδια, and φρονεω is from the φρην....
7 votes
2 answers
2k views

What are the Greek or Latin words for these SI prefixes?

Smith's Greek and Latin Roots gives the etymology of a few SI prefixes. For example, tera- is from Greek teras ("monster"), deci- from Latin decem, and micro- from Greek mikros ("small&...
0 votes
0 answers
71 views

Are monos and eis synonyms?

In Attic Greek, monos means only, alone, and eis means one. Are they synonyms? Can monos also mean one?
0 votes
0 answers
70 views

If the city name Napoli comes from Ancient Greek "Nea Polis" (new town), why isn't it called "Gnapoli" instead?

If the city name Napoli comes from Ancient Greek "Nea Polis" (new town), why isn't it called "Gnapoli" instead? Why wasn't the 'n' at the beginning yotated by the following 'e'?
2 votes
1 answer
83 views

Does ὅδε (hode) refer to what follows or what precedes?

Learn to Read Greek by Keller says on p100: οὕτος [houtos] and ὅδε [hode] are both translated “this” in the singular and “these” in the plural. ὅδε [hode] however points more emphatically to people ...
3 votes
1 answer
467 views

What does enclitic mean here?

What does enclitic mean in Learn to Read Greek, by Keller? In Attic Greek the word tis, ti may function either as an indefinite pronoun or as an indefinite adjective. Its forms are identical with ...
7 votes
3 answers
368 views

Where does the word "thlypis"/θλυπις come from?

A number of New World warblers seem to have genus names that end in the element -thlypis. It's been hard for me to find information about the etymology of this element; I found a few sources on the ...
-1 votes
2 answers
90 views

How to find the transliteration of a (Attic) Greek word?

Is there a way to find the transliteration of a (Attic) Greek word in English/Latin? Also called Romanization of a Greek word, I guess? Is there a dictionary that provides the transliteration of each ...
7 votes
1 answer
894 views

Is there a relationship between καθαιρέω ("destroy") and καθαίρω ("purify")?

καθαιρέω and καθαίρω look remarkably similar and seem to have similar meanings: "destroy" and "purify/purge," respectively. It came as some surprise to me, though, that I couldn't ...
6 votes
1 answer
266 views

Using "u" to transliterate Greek "υ" (upsilon) into English

The typical advice that you receive, when transliterating Greek words into Roman letters, is that Greek υ (upsilon) can either be Roman "y" or "u." (See, for instance, the ...
3 votes
1 answer
92 views

Are there any unambiguous examples in Biblical or ancient Greek texts where "gymnos" means " wearing a loincloth or light tunic"?

The Latin "nudus" can mean wearing only the first layer of tunic or a loincloth. BAG says gymnos can mean wearing a loincloth. Many writers say that where the Biblical text says that Peter ...
6 votes
1 answer
628 views

What is μέγεθος referring to in Jewish War 3.4

In the Jewish War chapter 3.4, it says: μόνον [οὖν] εὑρίσκει Οὐεσπασιανὸν ταῖς χρείαις ἀναλογοῦντα καὶ τηλικούτου πολέμου μέγεθος ἀναδέξασθαι δυνάμενον "He found only Vespasian a match for the ...
9 votes
0 answers
191 views

Why do we say "misogyny" and not "gynemisia"?

The Greek prefixes phobia and philia are commonly used in many words, such as 'gynephilia' and 'androphilia'. Why is 'miso' (from the Greek μῖσος) primarily used as a prefix in words such as 'misogyny'...
0 votes
1 answer
135 views

Ancient Greek-Latin and Latin-Ancient Greek books II

Is there any book of comparative Ancient Greek-Latin text-based teaching? (I am talking about a parallel method containing e.g. latin texts' fragments translated in ancient greek with comparative ...
0 votes
1 answer
116 views

Is khrysodory Athenaie the accurate way to say Athena's golden spear?

The closest I have come is khrysodory Athenaie (χρυσόδόρυ Αθηναία). Since I am piecing this together from the internet, I am uncertain if this is correct. I have also pieced together the latin, which ...
6 votes
1 answer
381 views

Can someone explain this choice of word?

I'm reading Ανάβασις by Ξενοφών. I came across this sentence: στρατευόμενος οὖν καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς ταύτας τὰς χώρας, οὓς ἑώρα ἐθέλοντας κινδυνεύειν, τούτους καὶ ἄρχοντας ἐποίει ἧς κατεστρέφετο χώρας, ...
5 votes
1 answer
413 views

Origin of /h/ in ἅζομαι (házomai), ἁγνός (hagnós), ἅγιος (hágios)

According to Wiktionary: ἅζομαι (házomai) ← PH *haďďomai ← PIE *h₁yáǵyeti ἁγνός (hagnós) ← PH *hagnós ← PIE *h₁yáǵnós ἅγιος (hágios) ← PH *hágijos ← PIE *h₁yáǵyos I am aware of Proto-Hellenic /h/ ...
3 votes
1 answer
638 views

(Ancient and Modern Greek) Pronunciations of ‘epsilon’ and ‘eta’

I asked this question in an online forum, but did not get a response, so I thought I would try it here. It is about the proper pronunciation of the letters ‘epsilon’ and ‘eta’ in Archaic/Ancient Greek,...
2 votes
1 answer
124 views

How did ἄρρην turn into αρσενικός?

The Greek word for male is αρσενικός. From the Greek Wiktionary page: αρσενικός < (κληρονομημένο) αρχαία ελληνική ἀρσενικός < ἄρρην / ἄρσην I translated it with Google Translate: male < (...
3 votes
1 answer
317 views

Bilingual Latin/Greek and English texts online?

I'm currently about halfway through Ανάβασις by Ξενοφών. I think possibly I might have a crack at Herodotus Histories after that. I found a great source for a bilingual edition of Ανάβασις in Greek ...
4 votes
2 answers
307 views

Verb tense when qualified by αεί/αἰέν

In particular, I am wondering about Epic Greek, but I am supposing that the rule is the same in Classical Greek. My question is about what verb tenses are allowed by the adverb αεί when it is ...
1 vote
0 answers
107 views

How would the term golden shaft be translated in Latin?

There is a epithet for the greek goddess Artemis, Khryselakatos (Χρυσηλάκατος), which means "of the Golden Shaft." How would one translate that into Latin? The closest I can determine would ...
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

How to say good job in Ancient Greek?

Question: If I was a teacher in Ancient Greece, and I wanted to write "good job" or "great job" or "excellent" on a students paper. What text would I write? Thank you so ...
3 votes
1 answer
337 views

How did Αμμόχωστος become Famagusta?

Hope I found the right place to ask and we can avoid a migration to Linguistics or History SE Wikipedia says it is Αμμόχωστος that developed into Famagusta (original Famagouste in French). How did it ...
7 votes
1 answer
241 views

How long was the privative alpha?

In Ancient Greek, the "privative alpha" is a negating prefix, cognate to Latin in- (as in "in-conceivable", not "in-flammable") and English "un-". It survives in English in words like "a-typical" and "...
7 votes
0 answers
455 views

When does the diphthong υι occur in Greek, and when it is pronounced as [yː]?

I'm a bit confused by the information I've seen online about ancient Greek υι: it seems an original diphthongal pronunciation was replaced at some point in Attic Greek by a monophthongal pronunciation ...
7 votes
0 answers
123 views

Are these transliterations of 11th dynasty names plausibly formed?

Question: Are Mentophis (Μεντῶφις), Monton (Μωντων), and Anatophis (Ἀνατοφις) plausible Greek (and Latin) names for Mentuhotep, Montu, and Intef respectively? Background: Manetho's Egyptian chronicle ...
10 votes
1 answer
291 views

Is Hyksos unique, or is there a rule about when κ + σ doesn't equal ξ?

I was trying to find if there was a true analogue to the spelling of Hyksos in Greek without a ξ. Most instances of words with -κσ- in Classical and Hellenistic Greek were compounds with the prefix εκ-...
3 votes
1 answer
755 views

Is the word χιραϲ used in the Codex Sinaiticus as a proper noun to mean Hira or as another part of speech to mean hands?

Codex Sinaiticus gives the following rendition of Isa. 29:12: και δοθηϲεται το βιβλιον τουτο ειϲ χιραϲ ανθρωπου · μη επιϲταμενου γραμʼματα ˙ και ερι αυτω · αναγνωθι ταυτα και ερι . ουκ αιπιϲταμαι ...
3 votes
0 answers
186 views

Can someone explain this word?

I'm reading Ανάβασις by Ξενοφών. I came across this sentence: "--ἀλλ᾽ ἔστι μὲν ἡμῖν, ὦ ἄνδρες, ἀρχὴ πατρᾐα πρὸς μὲν μεσημβρίαν μέχρι οὗ διὰ καῦμα οὐ δύνανται οἰκεῖν ἄνθρωποι, πρὸς δὲ ἄρκτον μέχρι ...

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