Questions tagged [ancient-greek]

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Rentiers in Ancient Greece

I've been looking for a Greek equivalent of 'Rentiers' who exploit the economy by lobbying the state e.g. asking the state to give them subsidies for a certain common good (climate change) but ...
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1answer
60 views

Which is correct? Eugenius or Eugenīus or both?

Checking the dictionary entries for Eugenius, I was surprised to find different vowel quantities depending on whether it was the adjective or the noun. As you can see from the screenshot above, ...
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80 views

What is the correct order for a calendar date, specifically ancient Greek Attic calendar?

In ancient Greek dating format, does the month or day come first in order? In other words, if ancient Greeks were discussing a specific date using the Attic lunisolar calendar, how would they order ...
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389 views

What would “agenda” be in Ancient Greek?

How should agenda be translated into Greek? The first thing that comes to my mind is just taking the future passive participle, neuter plural, of ἄγω (ᾰ̓χθησόμενα); however, there is a slight ...
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Is the Italian town Empoli from Greek ἐμπολή, “merchandise?”

Is the italian town-name "Empoli" related to the greek word "ἐμπολή", meaning merchandise, or gain from merchandise? I met "εμπολή" in the form of "ἐξεμπολημένων&...
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355 views

Did Plato describe man as “a being in search of meaning”?

I happened upon this Quora question, in which the quote "man, a being in search of meaning" is ascribed to Plato. Did Plato write this and if so, where? Obviously there are other Platonic ...
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1answer
200 views

Is μῆνις cognate with mania?

Pharr (Homeric Greek: a book for beginners, 4th ed.) has on pp. 10 and 281 a statement that μῆνις in Homer would have had an α in most dialects and says that it's cognate with maniac and maniacal. But ...
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59 views

How to express singing a song rather than singing about something

If I'm understanding correctly, άείδω is used with the accusative, and it means to sing about something. In English the object of the verb would be the song, not the thing being sung about. In Greek ...
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4answers
294 views

What monolingual text editions are available?

I am a beginner and making quite good progress with Ovid. Rete utile est. To start with Ovid I bought the Loeb edition of Metamorphoses, Books 1 to 8. But I anticipate that when I have finished this ...
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1answer
153 views

βυκάνη < būcina: vowel reduction undone in borrowings from Latin?

So I've come across this word βῡκάνη, ostensibly borrowed from Latin būcina ('an ox-horn trumpet'), from bou- ('ox') + canere ('to sing'). The lack of vowel reduction is immediately striking; ...
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68 views

Star age of exploration translation

A while ago I asked about a translation for "star age" to ancient Greek. I ended up with the wording: Astereaon. I am now curious as to what the translation would be for something like: &...
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351 views

Is Greek ἀρά, prayer, cognate with Latin ara, altar?

Is Greek ἀρά, prayer, cognate with Latin ara, altar? Wiktionary had ἀράομαι, with the etymology pointing to a red-linked ἀρά. I created an entry for ἀρά based on LSJ, but I have no source of ...
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209 views

Tellus' “briny robes”

I read in Keats' Hyperion: [...] No, by Tellus and her briny robes! (Hyperion, 246) Tellus is a Latin goddess, her Greek counterpart being Gaia. I am looking for the Greek or Latin source of the ...
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397 views

Is there any rule for determining whether a verb beginning with ε- will augment to η- vs ει-, or must all verbs' behaviors be memorized?

For instance, the verb ἐλευθερῶ augments to ἠλευθέρουν in the past, whereas the verb ἔχω augments to εἶχον (not ἦχον as might have been predicted).
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Homeric hapax legomenon ἐγγεινομαι — is it not real?

There is a 2018 thesis by Alexandra Kozak, "Le Dictionnaire des hapax dans la poésie grecque archaïque, d'Homère à Eschyle," freely downloadable from https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-...
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432 views

What is the ancient Greek word for apprenticeship?

I'm looking for an ancient Greek word that denotes a trainee craftsman's regime of study under a master, I found the word μαθητεία but I'm unsure if that is a word in ancient Greek or only in modern ...
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50 views

Etymology of εὔκοπος

This seems to be a koine word meaning easy. LSJ has it and the verb κοπάζω, but the English wiktionary didn't have either. I added both to wiktionary. It seems obvious that the etymology of κοπάζω is ...
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905 views

Evidence about pronunciation of ευ and αυ in Homeric Greek?

In modern Greek, a word like ευχαριστώ is pronounced like "ef-." The combinations ευ and αυ sometimes have the upsilon pronounced like β and sometimes like φ. (I'm not sure how variable it ...
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779 views

Why -ώς in αἰδώς?

The word αἰδώς means awe, shame, or respect. There are related words such as αἰδοῖος. I feel like I ought to be training my brain to recognize inflections in order to get clues as to meaning, but as ...
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89 views

Subjunctive Protasis and Aorist Indicative Apodosis

ἐὰν μή τις μένῃ ἐν ἐμοί, ἐβλήθη ἔξω ὡς τὸ κλῆμα ... (John 15:6) μένῃ is present subjunctive and ἐβλήθη is aorist indicative. In many grammar books, there are two types of conditional sentence which ...
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80 views

Where to place accent after applying diaeresis?

So I have the following elegiac couplet: κεἱ ψυχή τε πέρην ἐπικεῖται, ἔσχατη ἆσσον, μεῖνα δ' ἔγωγ’ ἔμπης, ἰσχναΐνων κραδίην. Theoretically, the latter hemistich in the second verse should have the ...
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934 views

Did the ancients or medievals have a word for the energy stored in plants?

If you spend a little time gardening, you soon become aware that plants store energy in their roots, which they collect from the Sun through their leaves. By the end of Autumn, perennials usually have ...
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110 views

A question about accentuation for aorist infinitives

I am learning classical Attic Greek at college, and we recently saw that, in a departure from the typical recessiveness of verbs, the accents for aorist infinitives always falls on the penult ...
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80 views

Semantic link between πόνος and πονηρός?

Πόνος means toil or suffering, while πονηρός, derived from it, can mean either that someone toils under oppression or else is knavish, base, or evil. What is the semantic link between toil/suffering ...
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118 views

Translation of Meditations 1.4-5

I've been using the meditations of Marcus Aurelius as practice in reading and translation, and then checking my answers by peeking at a translation by George Long. In 1.4, Marcus Aurelius says: Παρὰ ...
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2answers
379 views

Act 1, Act 2, … in a play, in Greek

In an ancient Greek play, what word would we use to refer to the different acts? Μέρος? Λόγος? Woodhouse doesn't seem to have anything relevant under the noun "act."
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Are “μπ” and “ντ” indicators that the word didn't exist in Koine/Ancient Greek?

I am learning Modern Greek on Duolingo, in the hopes that it will help me learn Koine and Ancient Greek, eventually. I have also watched a few other videos, like this one: https://www.youtube.com/...
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300 views

Why no relative pronoun in ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα?

Mark 3:1 has: Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς συναγωγήν, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα. In English word order, the final part seems like it would be "a man his hand had had withering.&...
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Meaning of “τρίχας” in Anacreon's Περι Γέροντος

Here's a poem from Anacreon's Odes: ΠΕΡΙ ΓΕΡΟΝΤΟΣ Φιλῶ γέροντα τερπνόν, Φιλῶ νέον χορευτήν. Γέρων δ᾽ ὅταν χορεύῃ Τρίχας γέρων μὲν ἐστιν, Τὰς δὲ φρένας νεάζει. From what I've found, τρίχας is the ...
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432 views

Tables of Greek expressions for time, place, and logic

I'm trying to build my vocabulary in koine using flashcards, and so far have had pretty good success attaining a decent level of reading fluency, e.g., I can get through the first couple of chapters ...
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158 views

Where does -ι- come from in derivatives of ἅλς (ἁλιάετος, ἁλιαής, ἁλιανθής)?

Many compounds or derivatives of the Greek word ἅλς hals "salt, sea" seem to be built on the form ἁλι- hali-: ἁλιά(ι)ετος "sea-eagle", ἁλιαής "blowing seaward", ἁλιανθής &...
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143 views

What is the difference between ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός?

What is the difference between the two adjectives ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός? In particular, what word would fit the best to mean "history" between ἀρχαιολογία and παλαιολογία?
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238 views

What is the word for knowledge in Greek?

I read that there are two version depending on intrinsic value. So that it is either intellectual knowledge or divine knowledge, knowledge from within. And is there a difference between Ancient Greek ...
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752 views

Why the π in ἀπιεῖ?

I wanted to pick a -μι verb to use as a paradigm to memorize for Homeric and koine, so I thought I would use ἀφίημι. I looked up the present-tense conjugation on U Chicago's morpho utility, and then ...
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1answer
48 views

Scansion of a Greek line from Babrius 20

In Babrius fable 20 it says: θεῶν ἀληθῶς προσεκύνει τε κἀτίμα. The piece is written in Choliambic style, and I can't figure out how to scan this line. The problem is that there are two consecutive ...
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295 views

Is ὀργίζω, to anger, cognate with ὄργια, a secret rite or ritual?

Is ὀργίζω, to anger, cognate with ὄργια, a secret rite or ritual? Wiktionary has a red link from the uncommon modern word to a not-yet-existing page for the ancient word (with accents). It seems at ...
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723 views

What construction is “διδαχή?”

There is an interesting early Christian document called the Διδαχή, translated into English as "The Teaching." The word seems to be classical, not just Koine. Is this some kind of more ...
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243 views

Regency of πίνω in Anacreon's ode Πάντα πίνει

The following poem is from the Odes of Anacreon: ἡ γῆ μέλαινα πίνει, Πίνει δὲ δένδρε’ αὐτήν Πίνει θάλασσα δ’αὔρας, Ὁ δ’ἤλιος θάλασσαν, Τὸν δ’ἤλιον σελήνη. Τί μοι μάχεσθ’ ἑτῖροι, Καὐτῷ θέλοντι πίνειν; ...
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648 views

Where does the final -ς in genitive feminine singularis -ᾱς/-ης/τῆς come from?

The declination pattern for the case endings, as well as the article ὁ, ἡ, τό, seems to fairly closely match that of the grammatical endings you find in Latin: Case Latin Greek Latin Greek Latin ...
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361 views

What is the difference between the accent on q and the accent on semicolon?

Background In the very helpful document ‘Typing ancient (polytonic) Greek in a Windows environment’, there is a noticable difference between the accent shown where the English keyboard Q key is, as ...
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1answer
76 views

reference for the greek word παστός as ritual coffin for initiation rites

In this link, it is mentioned in the introduction that one of the meanings of the word ΄παστός' is that of a "coffin for priests used in initiation rites in remembrance of the death of the god ...
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1answer
89 views

Who is the ancient author “Dion.” writing in Greek on bankruptcy law?

I have a book on the old Roman law (Twelve Tables) citing a Greek source for a detail on the bankruptcy/execution law. It is named "Dion." but I did not find a fitting work of a "...
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139 views

Composition of a word ἡμιόλιος

The Ancient Greek word ἡμιόλιος means literally "one and a half", referring to the ratio 3:2 and the interval of a perfect fifth in music. I wonder how this word is composed of: is it ἡμι- (...
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81 views

Was the letter phi used in Latin?

Is there any evidence of the Greek letter phi being borrowed to write Latin words of Greek origin as φilosoφia for example? The question is not restricted to Classical Latin.
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2answers
1k views

The pronunciation of Eta (η)

I have visited some sources and I can't finally understand that Eta (η) in Ancient Greek pronounced like 'eɪ' (delay), or like 'eə' (hair). In fact, should we say an 'ɪ' at the end of pronouncing η, ...
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119 views

How to render a translation similar to this phrase in the Odyssey

It says in the Book 6, line 160, of the Odyssey: "οὔτ᾽ ἄνδρ᾽ οὔτε γυναῖκα: σέβας μ᾽ ἔχει εἰσορόωντα." But if I wanted to change roughly to: I have never laid eyes on anyone but you. How ...

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