Questions tagged [ancient-greek]

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Etymology of εὔκοπος

This seems to be a koine word meaning easy. LSJ has it and the verb κοπάζω, but the English wiktionary didn't have either. I added both to wiktionary. It seems obvious that the etymology of κοπάζω is ...
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618 views

Evidence about pronunciation of ευ and αυ in Homeric Greek?

In modern Greek, a word like ευχαριστώ is pronounced like "ef-." The combinations ευ and αυ sometimes have the upsilon pronounced like β and sometimes like φ. (I'm not sure how variable it ...
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2answers
754 views

Why -ώς in αἰδώς?

The word αἰδώς means awe, shame, or respect. There are related words such as αἰδοῖος. I feel like I ought to be training my brain to recognize inflections in order to get clues as to meaning, but as ...
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86 views

Subjunctive Protasis and Aorist Indicative Apodosis

ἐὰν μή τις μένῃ ἐν ἐμοί, ἐβλήθη ἔξω ὡς τὸ κλῆμα ... (John 15:6) μένῃ is present subjunctive and ἐβλήθη is aorist indicative. In many grammar books, there are two types of conditional sentence which ...
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1answer
79 views

Where to place accent after applying diaeresis?

So I have the following elegiac couplet: κεἱ ψυχή τε πέρην ἐπικεῖται, ἔσχατη ἆσσον, μεῖνα δ' ἔγωγ’ ἔμπης, ἰσχναΐνων κραδίην. Theoretically, the latter hemistich in the second verse should have the ...
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1answer
923 views

Did the ancients or medievals have a word for the energy stored in plants?

If you spend a little time gardening, you soon become aware that plants store energy in their roots, which they collect from the Sun through their leaves. By the end of Autumn, perennials usually have ...
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1answer
101 views

A question about accentuation for aorist infinitives

I am learning classical Attic Greek at college, and we recently saw that, in a departure from the typical recessiveness of verbs, the accents for aorist infinitives always falls on the penult ...
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65 views

Semantic link between πόνος and πονηρός?

Πόνος means toil or suffering, while πονηρός, derived from it, can mean either that someone toils under oppression or else is knavish, base, or evil. What is the semantic link between toil/suffering ...
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101 views

Translation of Meditations 1.4-5

I've been using the meditations of Marcus Aurelius as practice in reading and translation, and then checking my answers by peeking at a translation by George Long. In 1.4, Marcus Aurelius says: Παρὰ ...
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2answers
364 views

Act 1, Act 2, … in a play, in Greek

In an ancient Greek play, what word would we use to refer to the different acts? Μέρος? Λόγος? Woodhouse doesn't seem to have anything relevant under the noun "act."
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Are “μπ” and “ντ” indicators that the word didn't exist in Koine/Ancient Greek?

I am learning Modern Greek on Duolingo, in the hopes that it will help me learn Koine and Ancient Greek, eventually. I have also watched a few other videos, like this one: https://www.youtube.com/...
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297 views

Why no relative pronoun in ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα?

Mark 3:1 has: Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς συναγωγήν, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα. In English word order, the final part seems like it would be "a man his hand had had withering.&...
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440 views

Meaning of “τρίχας” in Anacreon's Περι Γέροντος

Here's a poem from Anacreon's Odes: ΠΕΡΙ ΓΕΡΟΝΤΟΣ Φιλῶ γέροντα τερπνόν, Φιλῶ νέον χορευτήν. Γέρων δ᾽ ὅταν χορεύῃ Τρίχας γέρων μὲν ἐστιν, Τὰς δὲ φρένας νεάζει. From what I've found, τρίχας is the ...
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425 views

Tables of Greek expressions for time, place, and logic

I'm trying to build my vocabulary in koine using flashcards, and so far have had pretty good success attaining a decent level of reading fluency, e.g., I can get through the first couple of chapters ...
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1answer
151 views

Where does -ι- come from in derivatives of ἅλς (ἁλιάετος, ἁλιαής, ἁλιανθής)?

Many compounds or derivatives of the Greek word ἅλς hals "salt, sea" seem to be built on the form ἁλι- hali-: ἁλιά(ι)ετος "sea-eagle", ἁλιαής "blowing seaward", ἁλιανθής &...
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1answer
136 views

What is the difference between ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός?

What is the difference between the two adjectives ἀρχαῖος and παλαιός? In particular, what word would fit the best to mean "history" between ἀρχαιολογία and παλαιολογία?
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1answer
112 views

What is the word for knowledge in Greek?

I read that there are two version depending on intrinsic value. So that it is either intellectual knowledge or divine knowledge, knowledge from within. And is there a difference between Ancient Greek ...
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1answer
748 views

Why the π in ἀπιεῖ?

I wanted to pick a -μι verb to use as a paradigm to memorize for Homeric and koine, so I thought I would use ἀφίημι. I looked up the present-tense conjugation on U Chicago's morpho utility, and then ...
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1answer
46 views

Scansion of a Greek line from Babrius 20

In Babrius fable 20 it says: θεῶν ἀληθῶς προσεκύνει τε κἀτίμα. The piece is written in Choliambic style, and I can't figure out how to scan this line. The problem is that there are two consecutive ...
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283 views

Is ὀργίζω, to anger, cognate with ὄργια, a secret rite or ritual?

Is ὀργίζω, to anger, cognate with ὄργια, a secret rite or ritual? Wiktionary has a red link from the uncommon modern word to a not-yet-existing page for the ancient word (with accents). It seems at ...
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1answer
707 views

What construction is “διδαχή?”

There is an interesting early Christian document called the Διδαχή, translated into English as "The Teaching." The word seems to be classical, not just Koine. Is this some kind of more ...
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240 views

Regency of πίνω in Anacreon's ode Πάντα πίνει

The following poem is from the Odes of Anacreon: ἡ γῆ μέλαινα πίνει, Πίνει δὲ δένδρε’ αὐτήν Πίνει θάλασσα δ’αὔρας, Ὁ δ’ἤλιος θάλασσαν, Τὸν δ’ἤλιον σελήνη. Τί μοι μάχεσθ’ ἑτῖροι, Καὐτῷ θέλοντι πίνειν; ...
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644 views

Where does the final -ς in genitive feminine singularis -ᾱς/-ης/τῆς come from?

The declination pattern for the case endings, as well as the article ὁ, ἡ, τό, seems to fairly closely match that of the grammatical endings you find in Latin: Case Latin Greek Latin Greek Latin ...
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2answers
321 views

What is the difference between the accent on q and the accent on semicolon?

Background In the very helpful document ‘Typing ancient (polytonic) Greek in a Windows environment’, there is a noticable difference between the accent shown where the English keyboard Q key is, as ...
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74 views

reference for the greek word παστός as ritual coffin for initiation rites

In this link, it is mentioned in the introduction that one of the meanings of the word ΄παστός' is that of a "coffin for priests used in initiation rites in remembrance of the death of the god ...
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1answer
87 views

Who is the ancient author “Dion.” writing in Greek on bankruptcy law?

I have a book on the old Roman law (Twelve Tables) citing a Greek source for a detail on the bankruptcy/execution law. It is named "Dion." but I did not find a fitting work of a "...
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1answer
138 views

Composition of a word ἡμιόλιος

The Ancient Greek word ἡμιόλιος means literally "one and a half", referring to the ratio 3:2 and the interval of a perfect fifth in music. I wonder how this word is composed of: is it ἡμι- (...
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77 views

Was the letter phi used in Latin?

Is there any evidence of the Greek letter phi being borrowed to write Latin words of Greek origin as φilosoφia for example? The question is not restricted to Classical Latin.
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2answers
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The pronunciation of Eta (η)

I have visited some sources and I can't finally understand that Eta (η) in Ancient Greek pronounced like 'eɪ' (delay), or like 'eə' (hair). In fact, should we say an 'ɪ' at the end of pronouncing η, ...
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1answer
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How to translate this phrase properly (Hom. Od. 6.159-160)

Homer's Odyssey, Book 6, 160, the phrase goes: "οὔτ᾽ ἄνδρ᾽ οὔτε γυναῖκα: σέβας μ᾽ ἔχει εἰσορόωντα." — In Robert Ferguson's translation (which I been told by my teacher to refer back to for ...
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What are some ancient words that mean forgiveness?

What are some ancient words that mean forgiveness? I’m looking for words that were used before the common era (before 0 CE). I’m looking for words from Latin, Greek, German, and other languages. These ...
6
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1answer
151 views

Is it φιλημι or φιλημμι?

In fragments of Sappho, we see athematic (μι-verb) forms for what Attic would call contract verbs, like φιλημ(μ)ι and καλημ(μ)ι for Attic φιλέω, καλέω. However, authorities seem to differ on how many ...
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1answer
129 views

How to decline Greek proper nouns ending in -ēs in Latin?

I was browsing the OLD today and then I noticed the following entry: Stagīrītēs, Stagē- ~-ae m. A person who originates from Stagira in Macedonia. Two examples are given there: Aristotelem ~em Cic. Ac....
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214 views

reference for the greek verb αγγελιαφορέω

Liddell-Scott Greek-English Lexicon mentions that the verb αγγελιαφορέω (bear messages) is found in "Sch.A.Pr. 969", that is, "Scholia in Aeschylus' Prometheus". So I would like to ...
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123 views

Does Greek accent ever affect Latin stress?

Latin borrowed a number of words, including names, from Greek. Are there any instances where the stress in Latin is not where expected but follows the Greek accent instead? My impression was always ...
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582 views

Ancient Greek Romans 1:27 - I don't understand this phrase through a straight translation into English

https://studybible.info/interlinear/Romans%201:27 The part I am curious about is the last phrase: "[indecency manufacturing] and [the compensation which was a necessity of their delusion in ...
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2answers
469 views

What is the difference between ἐκκλησίας and ἐκκλησίαν?

I know the root word is ἐκκλησία, but I don't understand the declensions.
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116 views

Origin of the neologism “radiodrome”

In the Wikipedia entry of the term "radiodrome" for a pursuit curve, there arose a question about its original intended meaning: ῥᾴδιος+δρόμος, or radius+δρόμος. I have been unable to find ...
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143 views

Why are these insects prophetic?

In English, a "mantis" is a type of predatory insect. They're also called "praying mantises" because of the shape of their forelegs. The name seems, quite transparently, to come ...
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2answers
252 views

αναβαινω aorist active indicative 2nd athematic

Why does αναβαινω takes an aorist active indicative 2nd athematic (-μι) ending (ανεβην) whereas αναβαινω is a thematic (-ω) verb and thus should be spelled ανεβον (aorist active indicative 2nd ...
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1answer
120 views

When do the earliest rhymes appear in Koine or Medieval Greek?

I understand that rhyme is well established in Medieval Greek (and Latin) after the 11-12th centuries. But surely there are attested earlier cases before that. Do they go back to Koine? Maybe before ...
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248 views

πλήθει, dual use of πλῆθος in Philebus

One word seems to me somehow very strange with its dual number. It is in a passage from Plato's Philebus: φωνὴ μὲν ἡμῖν ἐστί που μία διὰ τοῦ στόματος ἰοῦσα, καὶ ἄπειρος αὖ πλήθει, πάντων τε καὶ ...

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