Questions tagged [adiectivum]

For questions about adjectives.

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32
votes
2answers
650 views

What gender should a predicate adjective be to agree with a series of things with different genders?

I'd like the translate the following sentence into Latin: Pompeii, Rome, and Herculaneum are visited by the boys. However, since these three cities have different genders, I'm struggling to choose ...
25
votes
5answers
3k views

What did “actuālis” actually mean in Latin?

The word actual is a false friend between the Spanish and the English languages. When we say in Spanish "la hora actual" we really mean "the current time" and not "the actual time". So in Spanish we ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

The best way to say *interesting* in Latin

It's sometimes difficult to convey some meaning in such an old language as Latin. I have trouble with the word interesting. I've heard someone say iucundus in this meaning, but it's not an accurate ...
14
votes
2answers
420 views

Are there many irregular adjectives for the Latin comparison?

I just learned the comparison for adjectives. Most adjectives have regular conjugations (every case/grammatical gender has its own output). But I learned a few irregular adjectives as well (all in ...
13
votes
1answer
144 views

Is fessus a participle?

The adjective fessus (wearied, tired, fatigued, worn out, weak, feeble, infirm) sounds and looks like it could well be a participle. If there is a verb, I would assume it to mean something in the ...
13
votes
1answer
117 views

When did nouns and adjectives derived from pronouns appear?

Latin has some nouns and adjectives derived from pronouns: unicus, identitas, qualitas, neutralis… I have the impression that such derivations are mainly later than classical, but I do not ...
12
votes
1answer
229 views

How can participles (inflected forms) be distinguished from deverbal adjectives (derived forms) in Latin?

Many modern linguistic analyses of languages like English draw a sharp theoretical distinction between participles, which are analyzed as inflected forms belonging to the paradigm of some verb, and ...
12
votes
1answer
179 views

Ūtāturne linguā Latīnā aliquis adverbō «ferē» velut linguā Anglicā verbō «almost» ūtimur?

Linguā Anglicā, saepe cum multīs adverbīs atque adiectīvīs, plūrima quōrum significātiōnēs absolūtās habent (exempla sunt «always» vel «everything» vel «nothing» vel «never», et cētera), adverbō «...
11
votes
3answers
256 views

Why νώ (rather than νῶ) from νόω? (Greek)

Consider these masculine nominative singular and masculine nominative dual forms: νοῦς, νώ κανοῦν, κανώ μνᾶ, μνᾶ γῆ, γᾶ I understand that the circumflex in these forms represents an acute ...
11
votes
1answer
520 views

Comparison of omnes, cuncti, and universi

The three adjectives omnis, cunctus, and universus appear to be essentially synonymous. They are often used in the plural. The entries in L&S suggest very strong similarity, but I find it unlikely ...
11
votes
1answer
246 views

Why do some 2nd decl. “-er” adjectives and nouns drop the “e” in the stem?

Is there any rule explaining why certain second-declension nouns and adjectives with a nominative -er ending drop the e when declined (e.g. ager, liber, pulcher), and why others keep it (e.g. puer, ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Meaning of *iuvenis*

I seem to remember reading that iuvenis referred to someone roughly between 15 and 30. However, my Collins Latin Dictionary states it refers to someone between 30 and 45. Since a man could serve as ...
10
votes
2answers
288 views

Is it “bene videtur” or “bonum videtur”? Adjective or adverb with verbs/copulae meaning “seem”

With verbs like "seem, appear", one sometimes uses an adverb to express how something appears ("she looked well"), at other times an adjective ("he seemed angry"). How did the Romans do it, ...
10
votes
2answers
469 views

In the title “Ars Goetia,” is “Goetia” an appositive noun?

Ars Goetia is a well-known book about demonology written in Mediaeval Latin. I'm having trouble analyzing the grammatical structure of the title. Ars is a feminine noun in the singular nominative form....
9
votes
3answers
1k views

How To Say “-able” in Latin

Is it possible to use something similar to the English suffix "-able" to show that the action described can be done by someone or something? If not, what phrases do you suggest to use in its place?
9
votes
1answer
203 views

Usage of adjective solus

I'm trying to translate the sentence "The whole state was thanking this man's brother alone." (that is, the brother the only one being thanked) My try is: Tota civitas fratri huius soli gratias agebat....
9
votes
1answer
150 views

Interchange between u- and o-stem forms in suffixed derivatives (e.g. “lectus”, “lectuarius”)

A little while back, I asked a question about the alleged Latin word "tribalis" (which it seems was not actually used), and I mentioned that it seemed to me that it would be an irregular formation ...
9
votes
1answer
176 views

Deriving adjectives from city names

One can often derive adjectives from city names, the most famous example probably being Romanus from Roma. Such derivatives are typically formed with -anus or -ensis. My impression is that -anus is ...
9
votes
1answer
625 views

Are “parvus” and “magnus” the best adjectives to describe the length of a river?

In the first chapter of Lingua Latina per se Ilustrata, there are a series of sentences used to teach the usage of two adjectives, magnus and parvus. For example: Nīlus fluvius magnus est. Tiberis ...
9
votes
1answer
118 views

Aut *celer* aut *vēlōx*?

Celer and vēlōx are often treated as synonymous. I feel certain that I learned the technical distinction between them once: that celer was potential speed, while vēlōx was actual speed. So Usain Bolt ...
8
votes
3answers
422 views

What are the normal genitive and dative singular forms of “alius”?

Some sources mention a genitive singular alius, but I've also seen aliae. And I don't recall seeing a dative singular ali, but neither do I remember alio. I think several forms exist, including even ...
8
votes
1answer
107 views

Niveus and nivosus

I would like to compare the two adjectives niveus and nivosus derived from nix, "snow". My prior understanding of these words was that niveus is "snow-white" and nivosus is "snowy", but L&S tells ...
8
votes
1answer
89 views

Quo modo Latine redditur “fool proof”?

Quo modo expressio Anglica "fool proof" Latine reddi potest? Nullum idioma Latinum significatione simile scio. Eandem rem Latine exprimere possum, exempli gratia dicendo "perbene munitus", sed malim ...
8
votes
1answer
160 views

Translating “Hic fortissimus, primus inter pares” into English

I am currently studying Latin in high school (third year), so I do have a mild understanding of how the language works. But I would like to know whether this translation is correct. For various ...
8
votes
1answer
190 views

Negativus and positivus

When, if ever, did the adjectives negativus and positivus evolve into an antonym pair like the English "negative" and "positive", and how did positivus get this meaning? Deriving negativus from the ...
8
votes
1answer
123 views

Does “plurimi” imply “vast majority” in Augustine's Enchiridion?

In Augustine's Enchiridion, §112, he writes: Frustra itaque nonnulli, immo quam plurimi, aeternam damnatorum poenam et cruciatus sine intermissione perpetuos humano miserantur affectu, atque ita ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

How do you convert a noun to an adjective in Latin?

I'm thinking that a houseguest who stays on your couch should be something like hospes lectuli. But that sounds more like a guest invited by your couch, which is silly. In my non-expert understanding ...
8
votes
1answer
735 views

Unde “-cundus”?

I have learned that there is a suffix -cundus, found in words like fecundus, jucundus/jocundus, and rubicundus, which means something like "full of" or "characterized by." It seems to often be ...
7
votes
3answers
209 views

What is “old” in the age of a wine?

If I were to say "this man is 40 years old" in Latin, I would say hic vir 40 annos natus est. That is, I would use the participle natus instead of any adjective meaning "old", and it is my impression ...
7
votes
3answers
188 views

Cibus sanus — healthy food?

The Duolingo Latin course uses sanus as "healthy" in connection with meals. A healthy lunch would be prandium sanum according to the course. But I always thought that sanus is only refers to the ...
7
votes
3answers
474 views

Origin of “lunatĭcus”

In Spanish we have the word lunático with the following meaning: One who suffers from madness, not continuous, but at intervals. This word comes from Latin lunatĭcus. According to Lewis & ...
7
votes
2answers
125 views

How to translate “main”?

I am looking for a Latin adjective — or several adjectives if no single one is enough — meaning "main". I might want to talk about a main building or the main idea of a theory. The only ...
7
votes
1answer
958 views

How to emphasize adjectives?

In English, and most modern European languages, we have one single word, "very," which is accepted as the regular way to make an adjective more extreme. Is there a common way to do this in Latin? Ways ...
7
votes
2answers
323 views

Can “per-” be applied to any adjective?

A long while ago, I came across a few dictionary entries under per-, meaning "very." I saw peracer, perbonus, and some others. But, I'm not sure if per- can be used as a prefix for any adjective. Can ...
7
votes
1answer
271 views

Nominalized adjective in Latin?

How to nominalize adjectives in Latin? In English, adjectives can be nominalized with a slight different in meaning: "the sick man", "the sick". In German, it's possible to nominalize the present ...
7
votes
1answer
207 views

Is the noun Bonum, -i simply a substantive of the adjective Bonus, -a -um?

The noun Bonum ("a good thing") seems to have taken on a life of its own as a distinct word in Latin usage. In derivation and meaning, is this simply a neuter substantive of the adjective Bonus ("...
7
votes
1answer
368 views

SPQR: Why not Romani?

The motto of the Roman Republic was, of course, Senatus Populusque Romanus, or SPQR. However, Romanus is a masculine, singular adjective. What confuses me is that it is referencing Senatus Populusque. ...
7
votes
1answer
80 views

Is differens different?

I would like to understand the Latin participle differens and compare it to the English adjective "different". The verb differre means roughly "to carry apart", but Lewis Elementary also lists "to be ...
7
votes
1answer
563 views

How to derive nouns from adjectives?

I know several ways to derive nouns from adjectives: audax > audacia, laetus > laetitia, pius > pietas, magnus > magnitudo. Questions: Are there any rules that govern which one of -ia, -itia, -tas ...
7
votes
1answer
164 views

Slippery when wet

Sometimes people are warned of slippery surfaces with signs saying "slippery when wet". I would like to know how to phrase such a sign in Latin. Translating a full sentence is easier: This road is ...
7
votes
1answer
81 views

Expressing a number of years with a single word

An answer to an earlier question about age of wine introduced me to adjectives for specific ages in years. Similarly, there are nouns for periods of time in years. For example: bimus & biennium ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

What is “legendary” in Latin?

The English word "legendary" obviously comes from Latin, from the gerundive legendus, "that which is to be read". (Less clumsy wording ideas are welcome!) I might base a translation of the noun "...
6
votes
2answers
3k views

What is the difference between suus and eius?

What is the difference between the possessive adjective suus (his, hers, its, theirs) (and its declensions) and the genitive, possessive pronoun eius (of her, of him, of it)? Can these words be ...
6
votes
1answer
646 views

Which adjective to use for tallness of people?

If a person is tall, which adjectives can I use? Which one of them is most common in classical Latin? The most suitable-looking adjectives I know are altus, procerus and longus, but I found no clear ...
6
votes
2answers
257 views

Can the gerundive be used like an adjective?

Can I use a gerundive like I would use an adjective as in the following example? It sounds fine to me, but I am somewhat suspicious; my intuition has failed before. Infans lavandus clamabat. The ...
6
votes
2answers
214 views

Noun adjuncts in Latin

So this question asks about forming adjectives from nouns, but no clear answer is really given for a general method. In english, you can just use a noun as a adjective without any modification by ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

What is “soaking wet”?

Is there a classical Latin adjective or other similar phrase for "soaking wet"? I expect that I should take an adjective for "wet" and prefix it with per-, but I did not manage to find examples of ...
6
votes
1answer
112 views

Formation of words like “essive” or “adessive”

In modern linguistic terminology there are grammatical cases named essive and adessive. However, from a Latinate point of view those formations look abnormal: Usually, the ending -ivus is attached to ...
6
votes
1answer
134 views

Who carries something ending in -ium?

There is a traditional Finnish instrument (kannel or kantele) which tends to be called nablium in Latin. How do I form the adjective for someone bearing this instrument using -fer? There are things ...
6
votes
1answer
180 views

How would you translate the exclamation, “How morbid!”

I would like to exclaim in Latin, "how morbid!" This came up because just recently I read something morbid. But how would I say this? I am guessing that this is possible: Quam morbidus! But when I ...