Classical Latin stress was famously based on the "penult rule": stress goes on the penult if heavy, the antepenult otherwise.
In later Latin, vowel length seems to have been lost very early: before Late Latin became Romance. But certain sound changes in the Romance languages, like posttonic vowel syncope (deleting vowels in the syllable right after the stress), still rely on the penult stress rules.
So, how long did penult stress last? Did it survive all the way into Romance, even though vowel length didn't—effectively becoming arbitrary? Or did rules like vowel syncope happen earlier, before vowel length had vanished?