I'm typesetting a book wherein the author regularly references his other works, inviting the reader to study from one particular sub-section until or through the end of the chapter. Unfortunately, footnote space is at a premium so everybody's happy with using a Latin term to replace the lengthy English statement "through/until/to the end of the chapter."

Unfortunately, there isn't a standard Latin statement or abbreviation for this statement. We're delighted to let the reader look it up, but we are not convinced Google Translate is trustworthy enough for this purpose.

An example of the English in context is:

See also This Other Book, chapter 3, "sub-header-name" to the end of the chapter.

Google spat out these:

  • "Through the end of the chapter" => per finem capituli
  • "to the end of the chapter" => usque ad finem capituli
  • "Until the end of the chapter" => usque ad finem capituli

Which suggests the following usage:

See also This Other Book, chapter 3 usque ad finem capituli.

However, shorter is better, so my preference would be "per finem capituli," but frankly, none of us speak Latin and we don't even know if that's conveying the correct meaning. If we're wrong, well... we'll get laughed at.

Is one of the two translations, above, acceptable for the purpose I've described, or is there a better translation for the concept?

  • While shorter word count / line length is superior, the meaning must be recognizable by a Latin speaker or reasonably translatable via Google Translate.

  • No abbreviations unless they're well known.

  • If you're a bit of a programmer and this is beginning to feel a bit like code golf, you're not far off the truth.

3 Answers 3


Usque ad finem capituli is a reasonable translation of "until the end of the chapter". Usque ad finem is an idiomatic expression which was used by Roman authors. See for example here.

You could also translate "through the end of the chapter" as per finem capituli, although a search for the expression in Packhum returns no results.

Given a choice between the two, I would choose usque ad finem capituli.

Although Google Translate was surprisingly correct in this case, it is in general even less trustworthy for Latin than it is for modern languages, and should be avoided if possible.

  • I'm not sure per finem capituli actually works. I can't even visualize how that would work - you get to the end, and then go through it? The better expression, attested in PHI, is per ultimum (or ultimos, ultimam, ultimas, etc.). You could even pair it with usque ad finem "through the final chapter up to the very end."
    – cmw
    Commented Apr 8, 2022 at 1:51

The usual academic practice is to write "sqq." for "et paginae sequentes", "and the following pages". If you really want to make it clear that the reader must read all the way to the end of the chapter you could use something like "ad fin.", but I am not sure I have ever seen that. Also, it could be understood to mean that you must read til the end of the book.

  • 1
    Does ss. also apply?
    – Rafael
    Commented Feb 22, 2019 at 12:47
  • 1
    I cannot recall having seen it.
    – fdb
    Commented Feb 22, 2019 at 12:48
  • 1
    I had seen it used frequently... in Spanish, but in a context where a Latin abbreviation was very likely. After a short survey, it seems that it is short for Spanish siguientes
    – Rafael
    Commented Feb 22, 2019 at 12:55
  • 1
    I wish I could accept two answers. Scott Brown addressed the specific question, and so I must award the checkbox to him. However, you have my deepest gratitude for addressing the intent of my question, and revealing an uncommon literary abbreviation that better suits our needs. Cheers!
    – JBH
    Commented Feb 23, 2019 at 20:25

Notice usque ad finem is a common Latin phrase, meaning "until the [very] end". Now, if your phrase is something like

See also This Other Book, chapter 3, from Section X usque ad finem

(notice the extra comma), to me it's pretty clear the ad finem applies to the chapter 3.

Notice also the extra "from", which to me feels necessary too (you might of course differ). You could instead use the Latin equivalent a (a comes from ab, but the b is omitted when the next word is a consonant). However, perhaps not many readers might be familiar with what a means (although in that case, not sure many would get usque either).

An alternative approach is to say something like

See also This Other Book, chapter 3, Section X & subsequentes

(but here you could use the English, subsequent). You can also go for the classic "etc", its Latin et cetera. Regardless of all, I think the comma after the chapter number is important to stress that the suggestion only pertains to such chapter.

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