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I'm seeking a timeline of classic (Greek/Latin) grammarians/grammar books. The timeline could either be a graphical one or a textual listing (like this one for the English language).

Most favorable is an annotated bibliography with information regarding editions and translations.

I should point to the Wikipedia category pages Grammarians of Ancient Greek and Grammarians of Latin which are alphabetical and are least favored listings (though they may be used to create a timeline with some effort).

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    Eleanor Dickey's Ancient Greek Scholarship has a good section on ancient Greek grammarians, and another on lexicographers, with lots of bibliographical information.
    – TKR
    Dec 19 '18 at 21:13
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    @TKR Ancient Greek Scholarship is my desk reference. I also recommend Brill’s Lexicon of Greek Grammarians of Antiquity.
    – Alex B.
    Dec 20 '18 at 15:22
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You can compose your own from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Grammarians_of_Latin but it is as you say a bit indigestible even in chronological sequence:

Antonius Rufus (grammarian) (Dionysius Thrax Τέχνη γραμματική 150 BC) Lucius Aelius Stilo Praeconinus Philologist 100BC

Marcus Fabius Quintilianus 100AD Institutio oratoria
Sulpicius Apollinaris 2nd C Flavius Caper 2ndC Eutychius Proclus 2ndC Aemilius Asper??100 Antonius Rufus (grammarian) influenced Quintilian

Helenius Acron 3rC Censorinus 3rd Arusianus Messius 4th Tiberius Claudius Donatus 430 Artes Donati, Rabanus Maurus abridges Priscian Priscian fl500 sourcesHerodian and Apollonius inspiredAldhelm, Bede, Alcuin

Signposts and perspectives come with http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195389661/obo-9780195389661-0321.xml For example:

Donatus and his commentators stole the spotlight for a while (see Servius Honoratus (Marius/Maurus Servius Honoratus; 370/380?–d.?; fl. post-400) and Pompeius Grammaticus (5th/6th Century)), but by the beginning of the 6th century CE, Priscian’s Ars grammatica was regarded as the great achievement of the ancient grammatical tradition. Although it was a Latin grammar, its Greek...

And in greater detail http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.com/2014/05/fragmentary-latin-grammarians-flg.htm

TEXTS:
Wiki footnotes on individual grammarians often evaluate texts.
I rely on the Internet Archive (donations); https://archive.org/details/institutioorator03quin/page/n5
and Thayer Penelope(University of Chicago) http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Rhetorica_ad_Herennium/home.html very accurate, e-readable. Where on-line texts are not accessible (or scrambled) the University of Toronto is worth searching out for good medieval sources and advice.
Loeb is reasonably priced too https://www.amazon.co.uk/Rhetorica-Herennium-Loeb-Classical.../dp/0674994442

For the very best texts for ambitious Classicists I recommend you ask individual questions, say, on this site: as 'What is the best Ars Grammatica?'

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    Thank you @Hugh. What about information about editions and translations? Is there any anthology, reader, etc. (in English translation) of the extant texts?
    – Kaveh
    Dec 7 '18 at 19:16
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    @Kaveh You can always start with Brill’s Lexicon of Greek Grammarians of Antiquity.
    – Alex B.
    Dec 7 '18 at 20:47
  • Thanks @AlexB Is there any similar work for Latin?
    – Kaveh
    Dec 9 '18 at 17:50
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To build your library of grammarians here is:
Alexandre de Villedieu (born around 1175) Grammar Leonine (internally rhymed hexameter) grammar derived from Priscian (Priscianus caesariensis ( fl. AD 500)), and Donatus, Aelius Donatus (fl. mid-fourth century AD) not Priscian of Lydia (Priscianus Lydus; fl. 6th century), one of the last of the Neoplatonists.]

as an example, here is: "de ceteriis vitiis" other faults:

  1. Amphibolia est ambiguitas dictionis, quae fit aut per casum accusativum, ut siquis dicat «audio secutorem retiarium superasse»; aut per commune verbum, ut siquis dicat «criminatur Cato», «vadatur Tullius» nec addat quem vel a quo; aut per distinctionem, ut «vidi statuam auream hastam tenentem». Fit et per homonyma, ut siquis aciem dicat et non addat oculorum aut exercitus aut ferri. Fit praeterea pluribus modis, quos percensere omnes, ne nimis longum sit, non oportet. sperare arrige aures Pamphile

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