According to OLD, the adj. viridis derives from the verb vireo, but nothing is mentioned about the suffix that turns the verb to the adj. Could anyone tell about the suffix that transforms the verb vireo to the adj. viridis ? (I looked up viridis in wiktionary, and like the previous search in OLD, no relevant info was found therein as well.)

  • Welcome to the site! By the way, in my OLD, which is probably a couple of decades old now, it says it's from vireo + -idus, when I look up viridis. So I wonder why your copy didn't say this?
    – Cerberus
    Nov 30, 2018 at 1:38
  • @Cerberus hi, my copy is probably of the same edition as yours. the -idus suffix comes with the (possibly less common) alternative form ‘viridus’, instead of ‘viridis’, could you see that on the dictionary page? so my question is about the common form ‘viridis’ in particular.
    – Eunice
    Nov 30, 2018 at 1:47

1 Answer 1


The suffix -id- creates an adjective from a second-conjugation stative verb (a verb that describes a state instead of an action). For example:

  • cal-eō "to be hot" → cal-id-us "hot"
  • torp-eō "to be sluggish" → torp-id-us "torpid"
  • liqv-eō "to be flowy" → liqv-id-us "liquid"

Usually the resulting adjective is in the first/second declension, but sometimes it takes the third declension instead. I'm not sure why, but that would be another good question to ask!

  • 1
    Another follow-up question could be, what other adjectives on -idis are there?
    – Cerberus
    Nov 30, 2018 at 1:39
  • 1
    Thanks for your answer! Would you quote the source of the content you posted? for i’d like to read the source material as reference for more details.
    – Eunice
    Nov 30, 2018 at 1:54
  • All the verbs appearing in this question and answer are second conjugation (virere, calere, torpere, liquere). Verbs of that conjugation of describe a state rather than an action. I wonder if the same kind of derivation works for other verbs. Yet another possibility for a follow-up question!
    – Joonas Ilmavirta
    Nov 30, 2018 at 8:25
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    @JoonasIlmavirta There's a whole series of derivations that afaik only work for second-conjugation statives: torpeō → torpor, torpifaciō, torpidus, torpescō, a few others that I can't think of rn. I'm not sure if this pattern has a name.
    – Draconis
    Nov 30, 2018 at 18:18

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