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Consider the phrase:

The video went viral

How could the concept of "viral" in the above meaning be expressed in Latin?

This is clearly a recent word, so there will not be a native one. Virus is a native Latin word, but, as far as I can see it does not mean virus in the biological sense (which is from where the properties of "viral" are derived, as far as I understand). The wikipedia entry for virus in Latin is titled virus biologicum.

There are several words for "quickly" which could be used for a combined term, e.g. celeriter, rapidus, velox. Amplus is another interesting term, which Wiktionary suggests to mean

  1. (figuratively, of force) impetuous, violent, strong

But simply translating viral with amplus seems not precise enough. Any ideas?

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If you want to suggest that the rumour/ message / fashion has a mind of its own then Amplus sounds good. You might also check up on Pernix, (spelling:PERNIX not PEMIX) and Percitus. All suggest 'eagerness.'

Alternatively, there are intensifiers which can be added to words for 'speedy,' celer; 'speedily,' celeriter; 'speed,' celeritas, gen. celeritatis.
perceler,
praevelox,
praerapidus.

Rumor itself comes from ruo, ruere, to rush.

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