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The word queō ("I am able") is back-formed from nequeō ("I am not able") and, to the best of my knowledge, is equivalent in meaning to possum.

When would one use queō over possum, or vice versa?

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    Queo is especially common after negation. Nihil facere quit 'he can do nothing' vs. omnia facere potest 'he can do everything' (although both nihil facere potest and omnia facere quit are possible, even if the latter is rare). – Anonym Aug 25 '18 at 20:11
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Its hard to establish an exact translation, but I believe that possum is something closer to "I can", rather them "I`m able to". Considering other romance languages that have a translation of "I can" as: posso (italian), posso (portuguese), je peux (french) and puedo (spanish); the similarity is clear. About its use, is just like in English.

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