Once I found online an old (I believe 16th century, but not sure) list of simple sentences, Latin and their English translation side by side. I've tried with no avail to find them again through google, and I looked through my old Latin folders because I knew I had a few pages printed out at one point. But I guess threw them out. Any help with this is greatly appreciated.
Mathurin Cordier was a theologian and teacher of the 16th century, and his work, known as the Corderii Colloquiorum, sounds a lot like what you're describing. Here's a screenshot:
It's quite possible that you remember the Eton Latin Grammar of (Arthur?) Hay, in widespread use in English public schools a couple of hundred years ago. It was adapted from the sixteenth century Eton instruction manual, but was much revised over the years and published in two parts. I remember from years ago an edition published in the 1880s by John Murray (London), which was partly constructed in the way you describe. You could begin your search by looking at https://www.forgottenbooks.com/en/books/TheEtonLatinGrammar_10853396
[Added later] This is a sample from the source I suggested, returned to the two-column form used by Hay, as nearly as I can manage it:
(246) Qui signiﬁcans causam éxigit ut es stultus qui crédas huic (homini). // Who, signifying the cause, requires a subjunctivum (modum) subjunctive mood as, you are a fool who can beliéve, that is, for beliéving this fellow.
Ut pro postquam sicut quomodo jungitur indicativo (modo) autém cum dénotat quamquam utpoté ﬁnitem causam jungitur subjunctivo (modo) ut, ut sumus in Ponto, Ister constitit frigoro tér. // That or after that, or, since that, as, at and how, is joined to an indicative mood, but when it implies or signiﬁes although, for as much as,or the final cause, it is joined to a subjunctive mood: as, since that we are in Pontus, the Danube has stood with cold, that is, has been frozen three times.
I hope that this is helpful to you.