Reading the Book of Mark, I come across these references to Jesus:
Mark 1:24 Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ
Mark 14:67 τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ
Mark 16:6 τὸν Ναζαρηνὸν
And elsewhere in the Bible the common:
Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος
These geonyms are common also in Classical Greek, such as: Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών (Philip II of Macedon), Ἀθηναγόρας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος (Athenagoras of Athens)
Can someone please explain to me in Classical Greek Grammar when to use the article ὁ and when to use the genitive τοῦ and when to use the accusative τὸν and when to exclude these articles altogether (eg. Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ, Maria Magdalene, Saulos Tarseus)? And how does this affect the case/suffix (eg. Ναζαρ-ηνέ, Ναζαρη-νοῦ, Ναζαρη-νὸν)?
As a hypothetical example to demonstrate please could you write the hypothetical name "Ἰωάννης τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ" in it's various mutations.
(Are the articles τοῦ & τὸν only used when the person in question is being referred to but their name isn't mentioned, so that "Ἰωάννης τοῦ Ναζαρηνοῦ" would be incorrect and should rightly be "Ἰωάννης ὁ Ναζαρηνοῦ"?)