The word "analysis" is found in some form in a number of languages, and it is of Greek origin. I could not think of a Latin term meaning "analysis" (as the word is used today, which may or may not be the same as the original Greek meaning). The word can be adapted to Latin easily enough, but I am looking for a more Latinate word, if any. I would assume that at least Cicero found a word for this purpose. What classical Latin word would be good for "analysis"?
Smiths shorter English:Latin has an odd extended vocabulary designed to help Sixth-formers compose Hexameters on any given subject.
It mentions explicatio, but suggests the field of the 'unfolding' of complications needs to be specified. As ...
subtilis alicujus rei; Cic.
For Chemical analysis, Bacon: 'corporum separatio et solutio.'
also M.L. 'compositum ad principia redigere.'
Analysis, -eos is appropriate in the context of analysis, and synthesis.
The first thing to note is that the meaning of "analysis" has developed considerably from its Greek origin. Etymonline notes that its use for a "statement presenting results of an analytic process" started in the 1660s.
The Greek verb, ἀναλύω, means, "unloose, undo." It was used, for instance, of Penelope's "undoing" of her web every night in the Odyssey. From this it developed the extended meaning (provided by the LSJ) of "resolution of a problem by the analysis of its conditions." It is opposed to σύνθεσις ("synthesis"), which is a kind of composition.
In terms of its component parts, the precise Latin equivalent is resolutio:
- re- = ανα- (ana-)
- solvo = λύω (lyō)
Unfortunately, resolutio cleaves much more closely to the original, literal meaning of ἀναλύω. The dictionary entry provided glosses it as "an untying, unbinding, loosening" and only provides a couple entries that approach the "solution" meaning we expect in English. Solutio is a little more promising, and, in medieval Latin, meant pretty much the same thing as English "solution." (Reading Latin manuscripts, a common trope is to get a long list of objections, after which comes a "solutio" in which the author answers the objections.)
If you want something more akin to the current (post-1660s) meaning, which emphasizes the "statement of the results" rather than the actual "breaking down process," the first word that comes to mind is expositio.
The adjective analyticus seems perfectly acceptable in modern Latin. If I'm allowed to introduce a personal note, the first paper that I ever published (in 1960) was in the journal Analytica Chimica Acta.