The Greek word ἀνάλυσις is a reasonable word for "analysis" or "recognition".
It means roughly "understanding by pulling apart", whereas the opposite σύνθεσις is more about combining.
The derived adjective ἀναλυτικός means "analytical", and it can be borrowed to Latin as analyticus.
This appears not to be attested in classical Latin, but it is a loan that would have been understandable to any Roman familiar with the Greek word ἀνάλυσις.
Therefore homo analyticus is a good choice, and I suggest going with that.
It has the benefit of being easily understandable to a number of people that lack classical education.
However, this expression comes across to me as somewhat humorous, and I would not use it in a serious context.
If you want something more serious, I am not convinced that homo and an adjective is a good choice.
Much depends on the broader context.
What language is the text in?
What is the field of study and what people are described with the desired term?
There is a good Latin verb diiudicare (or dijudicare, depending on how you prefer to spell) for distinguishing.
The most natural choice seems to be diiudicator, a "distinguisher".
See the linked dictionary entry to see whether the verb means the kind of activity you had in mind.
Judging by your newer (now deleted) question with some more context, I have the impression that you are looking for something more serious.
Whether either of my two suggestions works depends on the exact context.
In the future, when you make word requests or ask for short translations, please give context and explain carefully.
It is really important.