Biologists have given scientific names to many species, and these names are in Latin. A fraction of all named species was also known in ancient Rome (and medieval Europe), and they had a Latin name as well. By a Latin name I mean a word that would be used to refer to the species in everyday Latin usage.
If scientific names of species come up in a conversation, I often remark that these should not be referred to as "Latin names". They are Latin, yes, but they are not the names for those species in the (non-scientific) Latin language of any era.
The basic difference is that Latin names have generally one word, whereas the scientific name has two words, one for the genus and one for the species. A dog in Latin is canis, not Canis lupus. The expression Canis lupus is silly in Latin (Dog wolf), and so is Allium porrum (Garlic leek, the scientific name of leek). However, in both examples the scientific name contains a proper Latin name.
Can you give me some examples of species that have a Latin name (was preferably known to ancient Romans) but none of its Latin names (if several) matches neither the genus nor the species name in the scientific name? If there are no such species (I would be surprised), which examples would best illustrate the difference between the two kinds of names?
I am not looking for an exhaustive list but examples, preferably from all possible kingdoms (plants, animals and fungi).