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[ Etymonline on 'etui (n.)' : ] 1610s, also ettuy, etwee from French étui, Old French estui (12c.) "case, box, container," back-formation from
estuier "put in put aside, spare; to keep, shut up, imprison," which is of uncertain origin.
Perhaps from Latin studere "to be diligent."

[ Wiktionary : ] From Old French estui, from estuier ‎(“keep, hold”), itself possibly
from Vulgar Latin *studiāre, from Latin studium.

Both etymologies hedge with adverbs to communicate their uncertainty about the semantic shift from Latin to Old French, but what might explain the semantic shift? How did the semantic notion of "to be diligent" evolve to mean that of "put in put aside, spare; to keep, shut up, imprison"?

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The TLFi has this:

Étymol. et Hist. Ca 1170 garder en estui « entreposer » (Rois, éd. E. R. Curtius, p. 148). Déverbal de l'a. fr. estuier, estoiier « conserver, garder » attesté dep. le xiies. (ds T.-L.) d'orig. obsc., peut-être issu d'un b. lat. *studiare (FEW, t. 12, p. 310; REW3, 8325; EWFS2) dér. de studium « application, zèle, soin » (d'où « étude ») et attesté en lat. médiév. au sens de « soigner, traiter » et notamment « tenir en bon état, garder, conserver » (av. 907 ds Nierm.). Fréq. abs. littér. : 355. Fréq. rel. littér. : xixes. : a) 483, b) 547; xxes. : a) 424, b) 548.

... obscure origin, maybe from Low Latin *studiare derived from studium 'application, zeal, care' (from which 'étude') and attested in medieval Latin in the sense of 'take care of, treat' and notably 'keep in good condition, store, conserve'.

So 'be diligent' > 'treat something with care' > 'keep something safe (> inside).'

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