I have studied Latin, but in none of the courses I have taken has there been discussion about any progress in understanding Latin. I do believe — and hope — that classically oriented scholarly activities have produced new insights in the last century, but I am not aware of any such developments.
What is the biggest single step we have taken or the most important new insight we have gained in understanding the classical Latin language after the year 1900? This is a matter of opinion to some extent, but I would like to know what Latinists have achieved and why those achievements are considered important. There are books and scientific articles about Latin, but it is very difficult and time consuming for a non-expert to locate important new ideas and figure out if there is a consensus behind them. I am looking for something that is supported by a broad consensus or is even considered a fact, not hotly contested theories.
Although I probably would enjoy a summary of all developments, I believe this question is more focused when I ask for the single most important development. This question type is somewhat experimental; let me know if you have comments about its broadness and suitability.