I have noticed that active aorist infinitives ending in 'αι' may be accented in three different ways in Attic Greek, as follows (all from wiktionary.org):
- As if the final 'αι' were short: κώλῡσαι, σιώπησαι.
- As if the final 'αι' were long: ἁρπᾰ́ξαι, δῐδᾰ́ξαι, ὀρέξαι, ὀλέσαι.
- A third way: ᾰ̓κοῦσαι, βουλεῦσαι, δεῖξαι, διῶξαι, ἐθελῆσαι, ἐρωτῆσαι, καθευδῆσαι, παιδεῦσαι.
Is there some principle or pattern that will tell me which way a given verb will go? (I don't know that I have a large enough sample above from which generalizations can be hazarded.)
When the word is accented as if the final 'αι' were long, am I safe to conclude that 'αι' is indeed long? Or can it be a short ultima with an accented penult?
How can I account for the 'third way'? If I thought the ultima were short, I would expect the accent to fall on the antepenult. If I thought the ultima long, I would want an accute accent on the penult. The 'third way' does not fit either of these patterns.
Is there any other kind of word that is accented as in the 'third way'?
I am aware that the final 'αι' can be consistently long or short in certain positions. For example:
- short at the end of middle-passive indicative present third person singular (e.g. 'βουλεύεται') and
- long at the end of active optative aorist third person singular (e.g. 'βουλεύσαι') .