Emperor Claudius introduced three additional letters to the Latin alphabet: Ⅎ, Ↄ, and Ⱶ.

What are some examples of the words in which these letters were used?

  • 3
    According to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claudian_letters in all sorts of words. Are you looking for something more specific than what's written on Wikipedia? – Earthliŋ Feb 27 '16 at 12:34
  • Yes, I'd like to see more examples, e.g., does the letter Ⱶ occur in other environments than the ending -umus/-imus? – jknappen Feb 27 '16 at 19:25
  • I wonder whether this question might benefit from greater detail? – Joel Derfner Feb 29 '16 at 11:20
up vote 7 down vote accepted

The last line of an AD 49 boundary stone uses the Ⅎ twice, representing the consonantal v:

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The last line reads: ampliaℲit terminaℲitq[ue]. (Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy, 118).

According to John Wordsworth, a few other examples include:


As for the Ⱶ, its use is largely restricted to words of Greek origin, according to Revilo P. Oliver:

Revilo P. Oliver, "The Claudian Letter Ⱶ," page 251

He concludes:

Revilo P. Oliver, "The Claudian Letter Ⱶ," page 256

Examples of the use of the letter, according to John Worsdsworth, include:


The remaining letter, Ↄ, has not been found in any published inscriptions, but based on the testimony of Priscian it was meant to represent the sound of bs and ps. (cf. Oliver and Wordsworth)

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