How would one translate "argumentum ab invidia ductum" into English?
An argūmentum is an argument: not in the sense of two people exchanging words, but a specific point that someone brings up during a debate. It can also mean the topic of a speech or the plot of a story.
Ab is "from", a convenient preposition. With a passive verb form like ductum it can also mean "by".
Invidiā is dislike aimed at a specific person, which can range from envy to prejudice to spite to hatred. In fact it's a distant ancestor of the English word "envy".
Finally, ductum modifies argūmentum (hence the matching endings), and means "led".
So the full meaning is "a logical argument which has been led by jealousy". For instance, if a politician suggests changing a law simply because they don't want their opponent to benefit from it, the suggestion would be an argūmentum ab invidiā ductum.
It means "an argument derived from envy". It is a matter of taste whether you want to use "derived from", "due to", or something else.
Argumentum means an argument. Ab invidia means "from envy" or "by envy". The verb ducere means "to lead", and ductum is the passive perfect participle. You can see this in two ways: either the author leads their argument from the direction of envy, or the argument is led by envy itself (and envy is a grammatical agent). I see no real semantic difference between the two interpretations. See the linked dictionary entries for more detailed translations.