I have noticed in both Greek and Latin that sometimes a verb shares the same root as its object or modifier. This construction looks funny to me as an English speaker, as we don't often encounter this occurrence in English. One example that comes to mind from my Greek textbook is ἁμαρτάνω used with ἁμαρτία. I can point to more examples, however, from the Vulgate. Here are some instances I found in the Book of Jonah.
Et timuerunt viri timore magno Dominum: et immolaverunt hostias Domino, et voverunt vota. (Jonah 1:16)
And the men feared Lord with a great fear, and sacrificed victims to the Lord, and made vows.
Surge, et vade in Niniven, civitatem magnam, et prædica in ea prædicationem quam ego loquor ad te. (Jonah 3:2)
Rise, and go to Nineveh, the great city, and preach in it the preaching which I speak to you.
Et afflictus est Jonas afflictione magna, et iratus est: (Jonah 4:1)
And Jonah was afflicted with a great affliction, and was angry.
I wanted to know, is there a name for this? Is it found in Classical Latin as well as the Vulgate? And can you think of any reasons why it's common in Greek and Latin, but not in English?