Here I have the deponent verb persequor, persequi, persecutus sum, persecutum. Following standard deponent rules, I am able to form the following (apparently these active participles are active in both form and meaning):

  • Present active participle: persequirepersequins
  • Future active participle: persectumpersecturus
  • Future passive participle: persequirepersequindus
  • Perfect passive participle: persectumpersectus

I have used the presumed infinitive and the presumed perfect passive participles. However, all of the above are objectively wrong and I am unable to find the correct participles.

Where did I go wrong in the above, and is it possible to form case-specific, gender-specific, tense-specific participles from the principal parts of a deponent verb in the same way done with non-deponent verbs?

Edit: I just realized that the stem should be persequ-, but persequns is still incorrect for the present active participle.

1 Answer 1


The present stem is persequ-: this can be found by removing -or from the end of the first person active singular persequor. It is a consonant stem, which gets an -e- in present participles: persequens. The same applies to the gerundive: persequendus.

The supine stem is persecut-: this can be found by removing -um from the end of the supine persecutum. The past participle is persecutus, supine stem + -us. The same applies to the future participle: persecuturus.

Participles are adjectives, and they can be declined like other adjectives for gender, number, and case. Participles from deponent verbs are no different, except that the past participle has an active meaning (and sometimes a present-stem-like temporal reference: ask another question if you want to know more about that). The gerundive (which I would not call a participle) is the only form of a deponent verb that can have a passive meaning.

  • There are also some present active forms ending in -bundus, like moribundus, which co-exist with more typical forms, like moriens.
    – Anonym
    Dec 25, 2016 at 7:22
  • 2
    @Anonym: Indeed, but I'm not sure I'd call that a participle. Its meaning is somewhat similar to that of the present particle, but it is not identical, and many verbs do have such forms.
    – Cerberus
    Jan 18, 2017 at 2:06

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