In the 4. sententiae antíquae exercise of the page 86 of Wheelock's Latin steht:

Quisque ipse sé díligit, quod quisque per sé sibi cárus est.

My attempt to translate to my native Spanish goes

Cada uno se aprecia a si mismo, que cada uno se cuide por si mismo.

Translating it to English:

Each one appreciates himself, that each one cares himself.

I am enigmatic about the first quisque, the quod quisque, and what per sé.

1 Answer 1


Note that there is no subjunctive in the second part, and that quod has a lot of alternative meanings. One relevant meaning of quod that seems to apply here is because:

Everyone loves themselves because they hold themselves in esteem for who they are [lit. everyone are esteemed to themselves for themselves].

A possible translation to Spanish would be:

Todo hombre se ama a sí mismo, porque [todo hombre] es valioso para sí por sí mimso.

Or, a bit more freely, to make it easier to read:

Todo hombre se ama a sí mismo, porque encuentra en su propio ser un valor intrínseco.

  • 1
    Why use both, "per se" = "through themselves" and "sibi" = "for themselves", in the same clause?
    – tony
    Dec 5, 2023 at 9:42
  • 1
    @tony I'm lacking technical terminology, but per se = for who they are, and sibi carus = esteemed to themselves. Carus is an adjective, and in you are carus (~loved) to someone, since love is subjective.
    – Rafael
    Dec 5, 2023 at 11:33
  • @Rafael I think that's right. Aristotle discusses this when he talks about friendship (philia). Someone can be "dear to me" because of their utility or pleasure. In that case they would be dear to me, but not for their own sake.
    – brianpck
    Dec 5, 2023 at 17:27
  • @brianpck and all: I messed up writing that comment. I meant "in Latin you can be carus to someone". I was correcting a previous version and left it unfinished.
    – Rafael
    Dec 5, 2023 at 20:02

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