In Martial, there is a line Erras, meorum fur avare librorum... and it seems that avare is an adverb but this makes no sense since the intention seems to be modifying fur in which case I would have expected fur avarus, not fur avare. What is the grammar here?

1 Answer 1


Here avare is not an adverb but an adjective in the vocative case, in agreement with fur, which is also vocative.

  • 2
    Scansion helps making the distinction. The final -e is short in the vocative and long in the adverb.
    – Joonas Ilmavirta
    Nov 14, 2023 at 11:58

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