I was reading the book Lingua Latina, Per Se Illustrata by Hans H. Ørberg, and I often saw scenes in which persons were angry. In the book, the writer doesn't use any swear words or anything to that effect. Did the ancient Romans use any swear words and, if so, could anyone give an example of a Latin swear word?
Yes, they used swear words all the time! There's actually a whole book on the subject, The Latin Sexual Vocabulary by J. N. Adams. Cinaedus (the bad slang for a passive homosexual male), mentula (dick), and cunnus (cunt) are perhaps the most common and dirtiest insults. You can see on Wikipedia a larger list, too.
There's actually a nice little poem—Catullus 16—containing a quite a few of these swear words, two powerful ones in the first line. Catullus was a Roman living in the first century BCE, and so was a contemporary of Cicero and Caesar. Here are the first four lines:
Pedicabo ego vos et irrumabo,
Aureli pathice et cinaede Furi,
qui me ex versiculis meis putastis,
quod sunt molliculi, parum pudicum.
This can be vulgarly translated so:
I will fuck you in the ass and in the mouth
Cocksucking Aurelius and Butt-boy Furius
You who think that I, because my verses
Are a little soft, have no shame.
You can read the whole poem on Rudy Negenborn's site: Catullus 16.