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In my question about how to say "root locus" in Latin, my attempt was "diagramma locorum radicum". However, I am not sure that the best Latin word for "diagram" or "plot" is indeed "diagramma". Medieval science was full of diagrams (astronomical...). Which word was used to refer to them?

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There are two words that come to mind: figura or schema. Indeed in medieval Astronomy Kepler uses both of them.

Let us have two examples from his work Astronomia Nova:

Nec verbis opus est. Schema loquitur Geometrae; caeteri Ptolemaeum adeant. (ch. 2) [To the Geometer, no words are needed: the diagram [itself] speaks; Let others refer to Ptolemy [and read the proof there]]

Durissima est hodie conditio scribendi libros Mathematicos, praecipue Astronomicos [...] Quotusquisque Mathematicorum est, qui tolerat laborem perlegendi Appollonii Pergaei Conica? Est tamen illa materia ex eo rerum genere, quod longe facilius exprimitur figuris et lineis quam Astronomica. (intro). [It is very hard today to write mathematical books, especially astrnomical [...] How few mathematicians are there that suffer the toil of reading Conica of Appollini of Perga? And yet that sort of matter is more easily expressed with diagrams and lines than Astronomy]

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