Some conjunctive forms end in -im (and -is, -it, -imus, -itis, -int), but this is rare. The examples I recall are sim, possim, velim, nolim, malim, and duim (alternative to dem). These forms are sometimes explained to derive from an optative mood which Latin has lost and whose functions were absorbed into the conjunctive. The grammars I have seen do not discuss the optative, perhaps because it seems not to have survived in classical Latin. By this I mean that no classical Latin word seems to contrast optative and conjunctive morphologically.
I would like know more about the optative.
- Did all verbs have optative forms? Were the endings always the ones I listed above?
- Did optative and conjunctive coexist and have distinct roles and forms?
- Do we know how the optative endings were attached to regular verbs like amare, videre, trahere, capere, and audire?
- How was the optative used? I assume that it was used to express positive and negative wishes, but I am not sure.
In short, the question is: What was the old optative like in Latin (if there was one)? (If there never was an optative in Latin and it has to be traced back to PIE, then — but only then — I am interested in the PIE optative.) Answers don't need to be overly detailed; I can ask for further details in follow-up questions. I am looking for a big picture here.
Wikipedia gives a short description of the Latin optative with no citations:
Likewise in Latin, the newer subjunctive is based on the Indo-European optative. With this change in Latin, several old subjunctive forms became future forms. Accordingly, the prohibitive (negative desire and prohibition) was formed with the combination of ne + verb form in the optative present.
Note that I mean optative forms, not the optative function of the conjunctive (coniunctivus optativus).