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Noster can mean "one of us" in a symbolic way; L&S mentions that noster eris "you will be one of us" was a set expression for welcoming a deserter into the army, for instance.

The English opposite of this would be "one of them", but to my understanding Latin third-person pronouns are much weaker than their English equivalents. Would eōrum really have this connotation? Or would another word, such as alius or alter, fit better?

To put it differently: how best to really convey the sense of other-ness in the English expression "us versus them"? Not necessarily hostēs, but people who are most definitely not part of the same group as the speaker.

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I don't know if "us and them" had the same opposing connotation in Latin than it has in English and other modern languages. I think the connotation was weaker if it existed, so the point might not get across.

Instead, I might use the adjective alienus for outsiders. For example:

Aut noster eris aut alienus!
"You will be either one of us or one of them!"

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