Both the vocative and the locative are pretty rare cases, and not found in all kinds of words. Is there any word that is attested in both cases in classical Latin? I prefer the vocative to be distinct from the nominative, if possible.

I can easily conceive of situations where those two cases might arise, but I'm not sure if it has actual ever happened in the literature. The two attestations need not be in the same work or the same author.

4 Answers 4



City names regularly have locative forms (identical to the genitive singular), and it is not too rare for them to be addressed with a vocative, which takes the regular ending -e if the name is in the second declension and non-neuter.

An example from Classical Latin is Corinthus, which appears in the vocative Corinthe in Publius Ovidius Naso, Tristia 3.8.4:

nunc ego Medeae vellem frenare dracones,
quos habuit fugiens arce, Corinthe, tua;

The locative Corinthi can be found in Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Lege Agraria 2.90.1:

Verum arbitrabantur Corinthi et Carthagini, etiam si senatum et magistratus sustulissent agrumque civibus ademissent, tamen non defore qui illa restituerent atque qui ante omnia commutarent quam nos audire possemus

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    I was trying to think of a second-declension city that fit this criteria, but Corinth didn't spring to mind. Good one!
    – cmw
    Dec 15, 2022 at 22:46

I prefer the vocative to be distinct from the nominative, if possible.

One word that does have a distinct locative and a distinct vocative is:


The vocative is plentiful in both Plautus and Terence, where's it's usually used to address someone else, rather than one's own mind.

It's use in the locative seems to occur in certain expressions, and I don't know I always knew it was a locative when reading (as opposed to a genitive), but the grammars (1) indicate (2) that it is indeed a locative (and it makes sense as such).

  • Hmmm, it's not on The Locative List. Dec 15, 2022 at 21:45
  • @SebastianKoppehel Ha! Well, I'll have to update that now.
    – cmw
    Dec 15, 2022 at 21:58
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    FWIW, here is a relevant entry in A&G (358). "The apparent genitive animī (really locative)". in which it lists also mentis as a locative.
    – d_e
    Dec 15, 2022 at 22:05
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    @d_e I wonder if mentis was modeled after animi? Needs more study, as my old professor used to say.
    – cmw
    Dec 15, 2022 at 22:09
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    @d_e The standard locative would be with an -i (like Carthagini), so neither mentis or sermonis should work. It could be some confusion of the forms with the other forms created on a mistaken analogy. Or perhaps the animi is really a genitive after all.
    – cmw
    Dec 16, 2022 at 19:07


This doesn't fulfill your second criterion, because the vocative looks exactly the same as the nominative (i.e. it's not second declension masculine). But it's famously one of the common nouns that can appear in the locative, and does so frequently; here's Cicero (Pro Quinctio):

Quasi domi nummos haberet, ita constituit Scapulis se daturum.
As if he had the money at home, he thus made a formal contract to pay the Scapulae.

And it's also common enough to be addressed metaphorically; here's Cicero again (or rather an unknown tragedian he's quoting) in De Officiis I:

Odiosum est enim, cum a praetereuntibus dicitur: "o domus antiqua, heu, quam dispari dominare domino!" quod quidem his temporibus in multis licet dicere.
For it is unpleasant when it is said by passers-by: "oh, old house, alas, what an unfitting master masters you now!"—which indeed, in these times, can be said about many of them.

  • With domus, you never know which ending it will be, so it's good to have an attestation. No dome in the Packhum corpus, unless I'm mistaken. Dec 17, 2022 at 1:07

Just lucky first search attempt:

eheu! quam fatuae sunt tibi, Roma, togae! (Mart.Ep.10.19.4).

There are actually many more instances of Rome being addressed.

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