This is a sentence from a medieval book known as "De antiquitate regum Norwagiensium", which was written by Theodoricus Monachus.

Quinto ergo anno regni Olaui, filii Tryggua, intulerunt ei bellum Sueino, Olauus, Ericus, et eum nimis imparatum invenerunt.

Thoughts: Please note that "Sueino" is written in nominative case, despite not looking like a name in the nominative case. I am fairly certain that "Sueino", "Olauus", and "Ericus" are the subjects for the verb "intulerunt". I also think that the verb "invenerunt" refers back to these three subjects. What I am curious about, however, is whether these nouns are implicit subjects for the verb "invenerunt" or not.

  • Question for clarification. if the verb invenerunt referes to the names/nouns that just mentioned why would it count as implicit? Note sure I understand at what case they are implicit?
    – d_e
    May 27, 2022 at 20:07
  • Actually, Sueino does look like a name in the nominative case, like Cicero, Naso or Varro. Now, the genetive Tryggua is another matter... May 27, 2022 at 22:30

1 Answer 1


My first (non-expert) thought is that Sueino, Olauus, and Ericus are the subjects of intulērunt, and continue as the subject of invenērunt, particularly because the plural verb agrees and partly because of sense:

And so, in the fifth year of Olav, son of Tryggya's reign, Sueino, Olaf, and Eric brought him war and found him too unprepared.

I see here that this is the first sentence of a chapter titled De morte Olaui filii Tryggya, so it looks like events are not going Tryggya's way.

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