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Quaestio mihi fuit dum scribebam sententiam quandam. Si vero verbum (quod deponens non est) postulat casum dativum (e.g., ignoscere), quomodo rectius scribitur in passiva voce?

Exempli gratia,

Nemo ignoscetur nisi contritus

vs.

Nemini ignoscetur nisi contrito

In hoc carmine invenitur "nemini parcetur". Etiam in aliis locis inveni formam v. (pass) + dat., sed miror sententiae subiectum non esse in casu nominativo.

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  • 1
    A&G 372: "Intransitive verbs that govern the dative are used impersonally in the passive (§ 208.d). The dative is retained (cf. § 365) (...). Note: In poetry the personal construction is sometimes found: Cūr invideor? (Hor. A. P. 56)". Cf. the more usual impersonal passive construction: cur invidetur mihi?" (perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/… ).
    – Mitomino
    Commented Mar 23, 2022 at 3:15
  • 2
    Aliqua ēmendābō: nōn quaestiō mihi fuit "I had an investigation, inquiry" sed dubium mihi fuit, dubitābam, mē interrogābam, mīrātus sum etc. Nōn sī vērō "but if" sed sī rē vērā, sī vērum est. Commented Mar 23, 2022 at 3:29

1 Answer 1

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Quā dē causā ōrātiōnis subjectum in nōminātīvō nōn pōnātur ex hīs liquēbit:

  • Jūlia Mārcō rosam dat = rosa Mārcō ā Jūliā datur != Mārcus ā Jūliā datur
  • Jūlia Mārcō omnia ignōscit = omnia Mārcō ā Jūliā ignōscuntur != Mārcus ā Jūliā ignōscitur

Ut hinc appāret, ōrātiō passīva fit cum objectum (rēctum) subjectī vice pōnitur. Objectum vērō oblīcum passīvam ōrātiōnem facere nōn potest; ubi ita facere vidētur (ego invideor), rē vērā ex mē invident conversum est, nōn mihi.

In nēminī ignōscētur autem nūllum subjectum appāret quia et in alicui ignōscere nūllum objectum: scīlicet verbum intrānsītīvum est quod passīvum impersōnāliter facit.

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