I'm trying to translate the phrase 'drained of' in Latin, for example in the sentence 'I have been drained of all my energy'. All of the words for draining which I have found work more in the sense of 'all of my energy has been drained from me', with the thing which is being drained as the object of the verb. Is there a construction for 'to drain someone of something' with 'someone' being the direct object of the verb?
Well, since you describe a state of exhaustion, you can of course use exhaurire:
Omnes vires meae exhaustae sunt.
Perhaps a dative of disadvantage might also sound good, i.e. omnes vires mihi exhaustae sunt; depending on context, an abl. abs. would also be possible (e.g. omnibus viribus exhaustis languidus noctem exegi etc).
Another possibility would be privare or spoliare, where the latter also exists in the (perhaps more attractive) forms despoliare and exspoliare; e.g.
omni vi (vel omnibus viribus) corporis animique exspoliatus sum
These also satisfy your wish for a construction where the affected person is the direct object of the verb.