In Roman culture eye rolling was not associated with exasperation or frustration, but with various other things. Often it was an indication of torment. For example, at two different points in the Aeneid Dido rolls her eyes in anguish. Conversely, at other points in the Aeneid, men roll their eyes as an expression of thinking. When Aeneas is trying to decide whether to spare Turnus, he rolls his eyes (volvens oculos). The commentator Servius remarks about this, cogitantis est gestus. When Sallust describes the shifty Bocchus contemplating the betrayal of Jugurtha, he has him make the same expression: dicitur secum ipse multum agitavisse, voltu et oculis pariter atque animo varius.
The Romans also had the idea of twisting eyes, as opposed to turning eyes. A twisting eye indicated madness. So, for example, Cicero describes Catiline as having twisting eyes.
The standard gesture for frustration, annoyance or exasperation was either to slap the thigh or strike the forehead once with the heel of the hand, something we still do today. For example,
Femur ferire, quod Athenis primus fecisse creditur Cleon, et usitatum est et indignantes decet et excitat auditorem. Idque in Calidio Cicero desiderat: ‘non frons’ inquit ‘percussa, non femur.’
Institutio Oratoria, 11.3