I would like to know how to translate the Finnish particle or adverb "muka" or "mukamas" into Latin. Pitkäranta's Finnish–Latin–Finnish dictionary offers the translations ut dicitur, specie and per speciem. These translations are often fine, but I do not think they entirely capture the spirit of the Finnish word. Which other expressions or structures should I keep in mind when translating "muka" to Latin? The reason I ask this question for a Finnish word is that I know no close equivalent in English.

Typically "muka" adds a doubtful or condescending tone, or expresses that the speaker disagrees with others' claims. Here are some examples of sentences with and without "muka":

  • Hän oli kiireinen. / Hän oli muka kiireinen.
    He was busy. / He claimed he was busy. (He was not really busy.)
  • Hän oli rikospaikalla. / Hän oli muka rikospaikalla.
    He was at the crime scene. / He was allegedly at the crime scene. (He was not really there.)
  • Muukalaiset ovat vierailleet Maapallolla. / Muukalaiset ovat muka vierailleet Maapallolla.
    Aliens have visited the Earth. / Aliens have supposedly visited the Earth. (But we all know they have not.)
  • Mitä sinä olet tehnyt? / Mitä sinä olet muka tehnyt?
    What have you done? / Have you done anything? Do you think you have done something? (You haven't done anything although you claim otherwise!)

Do ask for clarification if needed.

(To make this easier to find, let me repeat the key question in Finnish: Miten sanotaan "muka" tai "mukamas" latinaksi?)

  • Scipio's dream (drawing on Plato) implies we all arrived here via the seven planets, picking up wisdom as we journeyed.
    – Hugh
    Oct 9, 2016 at 1:01

1 Answer 1


Scilicet .2. ironically

As much space in Smiths is given to the ironical use 'forsooth,' 'you may be sure,' as to the simple emphatic particle.

When used in this sense Sc. is sometimes placed first and immediately followed by the object of derision/ suspicion.

Scilicet is omnino talia curat. He really cares about such things. (meaning he doesn't)
Scilicet is spectabat impia scelerosaque facta. This man, wink! wink! was there watching the wicked criminal deeds.

  • I too was going to say scilicet -- seems like a close parallel, except that it can also have non-ironic uses (which I take it muka can't).
    – TKR
    Oct 9, 2016 at 2:21
  • Thanks! This is indeed a good fit. @TKR, muka doesn't have to be ironic, but it always expresses disagreement. Irony is typical, though.
    – Joonas Ilmavirta
    Oct 9, 2016 at 9:51

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