So, are those two words related? If so, how? Is one native and one a loan-word? Or are both loan-words? If so, from which language(s)?

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    Sudus doesn't really mean 'bright'. It's primary meaning is 'dry', and from there it also means 'clear' when applied to weather.
    – Cairnarvon
    Sep 11 '21 at 22:18

Sūd- means "dry" rather than "bright", and might be cognate with English "sere" or might come from sē- "without" + ūd- "wet".

Sīder- is of uncertain etymology, but there's no real reason to connect it with the word for "dry". The two roots don't look especially similar phonetically.

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