5

As Cerberus mentions in this answer:

With many (semi-)deponent verbs, the perfect participle often has a present meaning.

And in the comments:

I thought this was commonly known, but apparently not.

Indeed, I had not known about this at all!

How common is this usage? Are there any restrictions on it, such as only appearing as a participle (not as a finite periphrastic form with esse), or not appearing in conjunction with morphologically-present verbs? And what sort of aspect does it have?

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  • Good question. As to aspect, I think it probably tends towards aorist (non-durative). But I've honestly always just translated those participle rather freely...
    – Cerberus
    Sep 10 at 0:35
  • Kühner-Stegmann mention a "bereits eingetretener Zustand".
    – Cerberus
    Sep 10 at 0:37
  • What is "commonly known" is that the perfect participles of some deponent verbs can be (nearly) used as present participles. This remark is not only found in the academic "bible" (Kühner-Stegmann) but also in more basic textbooks of Latin Grammar (e.g. see section 491 in dcc.dickinson.edu/grammar/latin/tense-participles, which contains some examples of this phenomenon). For more examples and discussion, see the text from K&S provided by Cerberus: latin.stackexchange.com/questions/16788/…
    – Mitomino
    Sep 10 at 2:51

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