In response to a question e.g. "How will you maintain order?" (= "quomodo tu disciplinam sustentabis?"), the answer could be, "By ruling." In Latin, an ablative of the gerund, "regendo."
Is this correct for a single-word response, using a gerund?
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It is as grammatical as the English sentence "By ruling". They are both fine, but clearly elliptic; the omitted words are clear enough, so that in the context of such an exchange the response can easily be expanded to:
Regendo [[eam (= disciplinam)] sustentabo].
[I will do it (= maintain discipline)] by ruling.
When you are asked for a detail, you can answer with just that detail if the context is clear enough. The short answer is not a complete sentence, but in natural discussion not all sentences are.
This is hardly different to answering "What are you eating?" with just "Bread.", only supplying the object and leaving all other components implicit.