In a previous question about a Cicero quote, he uses the word sidera. Lewis & short give the definition of sidus as:

a group of stars, constellation, heavenly body

Astrum has a similar definition:

a heavenly body, star, constellation

There's also stella, but that seems to just mean a single star or more than one star, and not a constellation as a pictoral collection of stars.

Did the Romans have a word to specifically describe a constellation as a single thing, or is one of the above the best choice?

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The Latin for "constellation" is (surprise surprise) "constellatio". It is not exactly classical, though L/S do have a citation from Ammianus Marcellinus (4th century). In older sources we do find "astrum", but this can also be a single star, and not necessarily a constellation. "Constellatio" is unambiguous.

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