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Are pater (father), parens (procreator), parturitio (parturition), and partitio (partition) etymologically related?

Phonetic and semantic similarities lead me to think they might be related. I can't remember where, or if it's even a non-folk etymology, but I read somewhere that pater and partitio are related, in the sense that when one opens or "partitions" the womb, one becomes a father.

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    What are your own thoughts on possible relations? Did you check the etymology or the derivation history within Latin anywhere? Reducing these words to the most basic underlying Latin words will simplify the task.
    – Joonas Ilmavirta
    Jul 4 at 6:26
  • @JoonasIlmavirta Phonetic and semantic similarities. I can't remember where, or if it's even a non-folk etymology, but I read somewhere that pater and partitio are related, in the sense that when one opens or "partitions" the womb, one becomes a father.
    – Geremia
    Jul 4 at 22:44
  • It might be useful to include background like that in the question. I was not the one to vote down; I just suspected the reason someone did it was a lack of presented rationale. I edited your comment into the question, but feel free to edit further or roll back. That connection between pater and partitio sounds much like folk etymology, given all the other uses of partitio and the way it comes from pars. I gave an answer which hopefully gives a method to get started with questions like this.
    – Joonas Ilmavirta
    Jul 5 at 8:02
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Reduction of the problem

It is good to preprocess the data and reduce the words into simpler constituents within Latin. We can reason as follows:

  • pater
  • parens < parere
  • parturitio < parturire < parere
  • partitio < partire < pars

This reveals that parens and parturitio are already well linked within Latin, both coming from parere. Now it remains to compare pater, parere, pars or their stems patr-, par-, part-.

If you want to assess whether two words look similar, do it at this level. If there are many layers of derivation and morphology, the similarity could be due to that. Strip away any prefixes and derivations you can.

Derivations

Perhaps it is useful to explain the derivations above.

  • Parens is (close to) the present participle of parere, "to produce offspring". (There are many possible translations, but let me stick to this one here.) The regular participle would be pariens, but losing the i is hardly a far fetch, especially given the meanings of the words. The participle pariens is attested and seems to be used as a participle, but parens has taken up a life more independent of the verb.

  • Parturire is "to desire to produce offspring" or "to be about to produce offspring". The meaning "to be pregnant" is hardly a surprise. Derivations like this in -urire are formed from the perfect participle, which for parere is parit- or part-.

  • Parturitio is a noun for the action of parturire and has also the meaning "to give birth".

  • Partire means "to share or divide", from pars.

  • Partitio comes from partire just like parturitio from parturire.

Etymologies outside Latin

I am by no means an expert on this, so I will simply report what is on Wiktionary. Others better versed in etymology can probably give details. (Feel free to edit details in if you find that useful.)

  • Wiktionary derives pater from PIE *ph₂tḗr.
  • Wiktionary derives parere from PIE *perh₃-.
  • Wiktionary derives pars from PIE *perH- or *per-.

The conclusion is that these three appear to be unrelated.

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