Not a common saying in Classical Latin literature I imagine, but maybe could be found in letters? Or, if there are any equivalent phrases or expressions found in Neo-Latin particularly, eg Erasmus, that might also be a good guide.
Obviously this is a more common expression in modern times, due to telephony, the Internet, etc, making this a common conversational remark, which would have been an unusual question to ask orally before the mid 1800s. This may explain why it seems to be hard to pin down for Latin now. However, if there are examples of how weather was talked about in Classical times, this might also help understand how to ask about the weather.