Can someone please help me with the bolded sections. 1) How to translate present participle with a future verbs? 2) How to translate that ablative absolute?

Nullus enim homo, si modo rationis compos sit, reperietur, qui istis non lubens adsentietur & suffragabitur, supposito quod Deum tantum agnoscat, & se hominem fateatur. . . manente tamen semper in illis reliqua lege naturali, quoad communia praecepta, cuius beneficio liberari possunt ab erroribus, ad meliorem frugem redire, & sanctissimae religionis scientia erudiri atque instrui.

For no man will be found, if only he is endowed with reason, who will be unwilling to assent to and support them, supposing that He only acknowledges God and confesses Himself a man. . . yet because a remnant of natural law always remains, as long as the common precepts, they can by the benefit of natural law be freed from errors, amend their life and manners, and be instructed and taught by the knowledge of the most holy religion.

1 Answer 1


The present participle denotes contemporaneity with the tense of the sentence, so the lubere happens at the same time as the adsentire (or rather adsentiri, as the author chose to use the deponent form here, possibly so it would better harmonize with suffragari). If it were a perfect passive participle, it would have happened before (but possibly still in the future from the speaker's point of view). Do not overthink it, it works the same as in English.

Note that the meaning of libens/lubens is essentially adverbial, even if it is not an adverb in Latin (and it frequently is), so I would not hesitate one moment to translate it as an adverb:

... who will not willingly assent to and support ...

As for the second part of your question, communia praecepta must be accusative. It is a little known (?) fact that quoad can stand with the accusative and then does not mean "as long as" but "with respect to." That is how I read it here. Somewhat more literally than you I would write:

... there always remaining, however, in them a relic of natural law, with respect to general maxims, by the benefit of which they may be freed etc.

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