Let's take the following sentence Julius is also angry.

One way to say it is Iulius quoque iratus est.

But can we say it like this Iulius est quoque iratus? But if there is the option to put it this way, then it might have another meaning that Iulius among other things (for example being mad, tired, anxious) is also angry.

In the second version quoque does not follow the word that it explains, so is it possible to use it like that?

1 Answer 1


I would give two main rules for positioning quoque:

  1. It comes right after the word it comments on.

    If several people are angry and Iulius is one of them, then Iulius quoque iratus est. If Iulius has several emotions and anger is one of them, then Iulius iratus quoque est.

    This older question may be of interest if you want further details.

  2. It cannot (usually) follow a personal verb.

    I have never seen this explicitly stated, but I have never seen it follow a personal form of a verb. (Participles are fine.) To verify, I checked one hundred first results for quoque in Cicero's works (a minority of the hits are the unrelated ablative quōque) and it indeed never follows a personal verb.

    There are very few hits for est quoque in the database, and they are mostly in Ovid. They can be attributed largely to poetic licence and metric flexibility.

    Thus est quoque is not possible — at least as a rule of thumb. Perhaps there could be rare examples as there are with est, like when Catullus loves and also hates someone. If quoque is used like that it is rare. The line I alluded to has odi et amo.

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