Picking up the thread of analyzing beautiful structures involving participles in Cicero's works (e.g. see this link), I'd like to raise a question about the syntax of the following complex sentence. To put it in the words of Wightman and Knapp (1934: 206): "here is a sentence to diagram!".
Cogitate, quantis laboribus fundatum imperium, quanta virtute stabilitam libertatem, quanta deorum benignitate auctas exaggeratasque fortunas una nox paene delerit (Cic. Cat. 4, 19).
Transl. by C.D. Yonge (1856): ‘Think with what great labour this our dominion was founded, by what virtue this our liberty was established, by what kind favour of the gods our fortunes were aggrandized and ennobled, and how nearly one night destroyed them all’.
In this link from Perseus the following interesting note by Greenough & Kittredge can also be found: "quantis . . . delerit: this clause will be best turned into English by translating the participles fundatum, etc., as verbs, and delerit as a relative clause, 'with how great toil this empire was established, which one night', etc. In Latin the question is contained in the interrogative modifiers of imperium and not in the main clause". Similarly, in this link the commentator says on page 81: "A short form of expression combining two really distinct indirect questions, (1) cogitate quantis laboribus imperium fundatum sit and (2) cogitate ut una nox paene (imperium) delerit'. In English, 'Think by what toil was the empire established, which one night nearly destroyed'."
These English translations can be said to be very good but it is important to realize that they involve a syntax that is different from what we really find in Latin: i.e., in the Latin complex sentence above the exclamative (cf. "interrogative" in Greenough & Kittredge's note above) constituents (quantis laboribus, quanta virtute, and quanta deorum benignitate) modify participles (fundatum, stabilitam, and auctas exaggeratasque), which in turn depend on the nominal heads of the direct objects (imperium, libertatem, and fortunas) of the subordinate verb dele(ve)rit. For some reason strange to me the exclamative nature of the adjunct participle construction (e.g. quantis laboribus fundatum) appears to "percolate up" to the subordinate clause of the verb dele(ve)rit. Could anyone shed light on what is going on here? I was wondering whether the existence of these examples can be related to the claim that Latin is a "discourse-configurational language" (NB: "discourse-configurational languages" are those ones where either or both of the discourse-semantic functions "topic" and "focus" are linked to particular structural positions. For relevant discussion of the important claim that Latin is a "discourse-configurational language", see the following references: Devine, Andrew M. & Laurence D. Stephens (2006). Latin Word Order. Structured Meaning and Information. New York: Oxford University Press // Devine, Andrew M. & Laurence D. Stephens (2019). Pragmatics for Latin. From Syntax to Information Structure. New York: Oxford University Press).
That could explain why it is nearly impossible to provide a good direct translation of the Latin example above into English and other 'plainly configurational' languages I know of (e.g., cf. the relative-clause strategy put foward by Greenough & Kittredge in their note above with the coordination strategy used by Yonge in his English translation above: 'and how nearly one night destroyed them all’).