In Latin etiam and enim seem to have pretty similar meanings.

I notice that both Greek and Latin seem to use connective words like this a lot, I suppose because they had no punctuation, so they serve as sentence markers.

What is the difference in sense between the two words?

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    etiam / enim - could you perhaps tell us a little about where you see the similarities? Because as far a I can see, the two words have little in common. Oct 10, 2020 at 16:02
  • @SebastianKoppehel Well, when I translate the words I generally find myself translating both words as "indeed". I don't really understand the sense behind the words that make them different. The sense that both seem to have is the idea, "...and here is another thing along the same lines..." Oct 10, 2020 at 18:48
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    If you see the dictionary entries linked by @SebastianKoppehel, their meanings are quite different in general, though they could be interchangeable in some contexts. The confusion could come from the fact that they are treated as pet words sometimes, especially enim (and thus rendered nearly meaningless)
    – Rafael
    Oct 10, 2020 at 21:42

2 Answers 2


After further research, the basic idea seems to be that etiam means something additional or added on to the previous thought. enim has the same meaning but also has the sense of corroboration. So, for example, he did this, then he did that, versus he did this and he did it well.


Im reading The Colloquia of the Hermeneumata Pseudodositheana which it has latin and its and translations.

poposci calciamenta et ocreas; erat enim frigus. I asked for shoes and leggings; for it was cold.

In this context it is postpositive "for" in the sense of because.

And for etiam : which is in the book "learn latin in an ancient way"

diuturnus enim languor et senecta, quae saepe etiam languore deterior est, universam substantiam eius absumpserat.

For a long illness and old age, which often "even" worst than illness is, had consumed all his property.

But I think it depends in the context, for/enim the words has many different meanings

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