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In English, many numbers have specific words that denote them, distinct from the number itself. For example "dozen" means group of 12; "gross" means 144; and "score" means 20. Similarly, I understand that French has the word "seizaine" meaning a group of 16, distinct from "seize", the word for the number 16 itself. (I don't actually know French, so I may be missing a subtlety here.)

Does Latin have any similar words for particular numbers?

  • I don't know if this applies but the words "primus" and "princeps" overlap somewhat in meaning. They can both mean "first." – Nickimite Aug 3 at 19:17
  • There are unspecific numbers of course, manipulus, group, platoon; manipulatim, in heaps (handfuls). Scala, a series, e.g. of notes, steps. – Hugh Aug 3 at 22:05
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    As an aside, seeing as you mention seizaine in French, the English dozen comes from the French douzaine :) – Rich Aug 4 at 6:54
  • In the etymology of "dozen" is also Latin: from Latin duodecim (“twelve”) (from duo (“two”) + decem (“ten”)) + -ana (“-ish”). – eckes Aug 4 at 8:21
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    I don't know if I would describe seizaine as completely separate from seize; -aine can be added to many numerals, so it's rather analogous to English -some (as in "threesome", "foursome", "fivesome", etc.). – ruakh Aug 4 at 21:58
7

I can think of at least these two:

  • decuria: A group of ten things or people
  • centuria: A group of a hundred people (not things), especially a military unit of 100, later 60 men
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4

Latin borrowed a number of words from Greek, including some with numeric meanings, such as monas and trias.

There is also trīnitās, built out of Latin components.

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