Spanish has evolved from Latin. The Spanish -ar, -er, and -ir verbs are also from Latin.
""Latin’s -āre verb class, which evolved into the -ar class of Spanish, was used:
- to turn nouns and adjectives into verbs. Some examples are curare “to care” from cura “care”, navigare “sail” from navex “sailor”, and novare “to renew” from novus “new”.
- for repeated or frequent actions. Some examples are dictare “recite” from dicere “say” and factitare “to practice” from facere “to do, make”. for intensives (with a prefix). One example is ocupare “to seize” from capere “to take”.
- for intensives (with a prefix). One example is ocupare “to seize” from capere “to take”.
Latin’s -ēre class, which evolved into the -er class of Spanish, was used:
- for causatives, such as monere “warn” from men “think” (i.e. to cause someone to think) and docere “to teach” from dek “accept” (i.e. to cause someone to accept).
- for verbs that describe states, e.g. calere “to be hot”, frigere “to be cold”, pendere “to be hanging”. Latin’s -ĕre class, which merged into the -er class of Spanish, included a group of change-of-state verbs, e.g. calescere “get hot” (from calere) and tacescere “become quiet” (from tacere “to be quiet”).
Latin’s -īre class, which evolved into the -ir class of Spanish, was used:
- to turn nouns into verbs, as in finire “to finish” from finis “end” and servire “to serve, be a slave” from servus “slave”. I don’t know what, if anything, distinguished these from the verbs-from-nouns in the -are class.
- for desires, e.g. esurire “to be hungry” from esse “to eat”, parturire “to be in labor” from parere “to give birth”. "
In Spanish there are some pairs of verbs with opposite meanings, where one of them is an -ar verb, while the other one is either an -er or an -ir verb?
"entrar" (to enter) and "salir" (to leave)
"saludar" (to greet) and "despedir" (to dismiss)
"quitar" (to remove) and "poner" (to put)
"levantar" (to awaken) and "dormir" (to sleep)
"comprar" (to buy) and "vender" (to sell)
So, what was the original Latin word for "levantar" and how does it turn a noun or an adjective into a verb or how is it a repeated or frequent action? And I have the same questions for every Spanish verb I have listed in my examples.