Spanish has a lot of influences from Latin. One of them is the -ar, -er, and -ir verbs.
""Latin’s -āre verb class, which evolved into the -ar class of Spanish, was used:
- to turn nouns and adjectives into verbs. Some examples are curare “to care” from cura “care”, navigare “sail” from navex “sailor”, and novare “to renew” from novus “new”.
- for repeated or frequent actions. Some examples are dictare “recite” from dicere “say” and factitare “to practice” from facere “to do, make”. for intensives (with a prefix). One example is ocupare “to seize” from capere “to take”.
- for intensives (with a prefix). One example is ocupare “to seize” from capere “to take”.
Latin’s -ēre class, which evolved into the -er class of Spanish, was used:
- for causatives, such as monere “warn” from men “think” (i.e. to cause someone to think) and docere “to teach” from dek “accept” (i.e. to cause someone to accept).
- for verbs that describe states, e.g. calere “to be hot”, frigere “to be cold”, pendere “to be hanging”. Latin’s -ĕre class, which merged into the -er class of Spanish, included a group of change-of-state verbs, e.g. calescere “get hot” (from calere) and tacescere “become quiet” (from tacere “to be quiet”).
Latin’s -īre class, which evolved into the -ir class of Spanish, was used:
- to turn nouns into verbs, as in finire “to finish” from finis “end” and servire “to serve, be a slave” from servus “slave”. I don’t know what, if anything, distinguished these from the verbs-from-nouns in the -are class.
- for desires, e.g. esurire “to be hungry” from esse “to eat”, parturire “to be in labor” from parere “to give birth”. "
Now in Spanish, I see that there are many negative verbs -ar verbs, while their positive counterparts are -er or -ir verbs
"odiar" (to hate) and "querer" (lo love)
"llorar" (to cry) and "reír" (to laugh)
So, what were the original Latin words for "odiar" and "llorar" and how do they turn nouns or adjectives into verbs or how they are repeated or frequent actions?
In Spanish there are also some pairs of verbs with opposite meanings, where one of them is an -ar verb, while the other one is either an -er or an -ir verb?
"entrar" (to enter) and "salir" (to leave)
"encender" (to turn on) and "apagar" (to turn off)
"saludar" (to greet) and "despedir" (to dismiss)
"quitar" (to remove) and "poner" (to put)
"levantar" (to awaken) and "dormir" (to sleep)
"abrir" (to open) and "cerrar" (to close)
"comprar" (to buy) and "vender" (to sell)
So, once again what was the original Latin word for "levantar" and how does it turn a noun or an adjective into a verb or how is it a repeated or frequent action? And I have the same questions for every Spanish verb I have listed in my examples.